United Nations states poverty eradication as one of its Millennium Goals. Since tourism does not require a lot of initial investment, it is seen as an easy, low-impact, non-consumptive development option for the resource constrained developing countries, and it is those countries who are the most fragile to the impact of incoming tourism. In my research paper, I will be mainly focusing on investigating if it is possible to adhere to sustainable tourism principles in underdeveloped countries and especially if tourism industry take into consideration the sociocultural, economic and environmental needs of the host economy giving a special attention to one of the most rapidly increasing tourism sectors, adventure holidays, in Nepal. I will be examining the main obstacles Third World countries (including Nepal) are facing in developing sustainable tourism and looking for possible solutions and question tourism as a way out of poverty.

Research Question: How can sustainable tourism development and tourism in general contribute to poverty alleviation?

Preliminary Outline:

  • Introduction
  • Research question + limitations
  • Methodology
  • Theoretical framework
  • Analysis and discussion
    • Terms and definitions: poverty, developing countries, adventure holidays, etc.
    • Problems in tourism development
    • Sustainability of tourism industry in Third World countries
    • Case of Nepal
    • Conclusions
    • Future research

Literature review:

  1. Cevat Tosun, 2001, Challenges of sustainable tourism development in the developing world: the case of Turkey, Tourism Management, Volume 22, Issue 3, p. 289 – 303
  2. Zhenhua Liu, 2003, Sustainable Tourism Development: A Critique, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 11, Issue 6, p. 459 – 475
  3. Cevat Tosun, 2000, Limits to Community Participation in the Tourism Development Process in Developing Countries, Tourism Management, Volume 21, Issue 6, p. 613 – 633
  4. Erlet Cater, 1993, Ecotourism in the Third World: Problems for Sustainable Tourism Development, Tourism Management, Volume 14, Issue 2, p. 85 – 90
  5. John Brohman, 1996, New Directions in Tourism for Third World Development, Annals of Tourism Research, Volume 23, Issue 1, p. 48 – 70
  6. Zeppel, H., 1998, Land and Culture: Sustainable Tourism and Indigenous Peoples, Sustainable tourism: a geographical perspective, p. 60 – 74
  7. Colin Hunter, 1997, Sustainable Tourism as an Adaptive Paradigm, Annals of Tourism Research, Volume 24, Issue 4, p. 850 – 867
  8. Singh, T. V., Theuns, H. L., Go, F. M., 2005, Sustainable Tourism in Developing Countries: Poverty Alleviation, Participatory Planning, and Ethical Issues, The European Journal of Development Research, Volume 17, Issue 3, p.356
  9. Joseph E. Mbaiwa, 2005, The Problems and Prospects of Sustainable Tourism Development in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 13, Issue 3, p. 203 – 227
  10. Sanjay K Nepal, 2000, Tourism in Protected Areas: The Nepalese Himalaya, Annals of Tourism Research, Volume 27, Issue 3, p. 661 – 681
  11. David N. Zurick, 1992, Adventure Travel and Sustainable Tourism in the Peripheral Economy of Nepal, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Volume 82, Issue 4, p. 608 – 628
  12. Rogers, P, Aitchison, J, 1998, Towards Sustainable Tourism in the Everest Region of Nepal, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, p. 108
  13. Vincent May, 1991, Tourism, Environment and Development: Values, Sustainability and Stewardship, Tourism Management, Volume 12, Issue 2, p. 112 – 118

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