2014, Sustainable Tourism Development

Sustainable tourism development in indigenous communities – Case study of Eastern coast in Taiwan

Wednesday, November 12th, 2014

In Taiwan, sustainability is sometimes not well considered before developing tourism in some rural areas, especially when it comes to Indigenous groups and the land of their traditional territories. There has been many disputes in between indigenous people and tourism bureau as well as local governments regarding tourism development issues.

Therefore, the topic would be sustainable tourism development in indigenous communities in Taiwan, focusing on an ongoing hotel resort project in Eastern Coast, as the area is considered part of the traditional territory of local Indigenous group and the constructing process did not fulfill the environmental evaluation standard. Also, many civil group are concerned about the justice of the project, whether it is fair to take over public beaches and build fancy resort on it. On the other hand, local government considers it would be beneficial as the hotel creates many job opportunities and help to solve the problem of population declination in rural areas. Meanwhile, being aware of the sustainability issue evoked by this controversial case,  local indigenous communities and other supporting civil groups started to initiate sustainable alternatives for local community development.

I would like to analysis the stakeholders in the case and investigate the dilemma between  development and conservation of rural areas and indigenous communities in Taiwan, for answering the research question below,

– How did the controversial project stimulate local communities to consider and create innovative way for sustainable tourism development?

– How indigenous communities can be more involved in tourism development?

Some resources related to the topic.

Cole, S. (1997). Anthropologists, local communities and sustainable tourism development. In M. Stabler (Ed.), Sustainable tourism: From principles to practice (pp. 219–230). Wallingford, UK:CAB International.

Cole, S. (2006a). Cultural tourism, community participation and empowerment. In M.K. Smith & M. Robinson (Eds.), Cultural tourism in a changing world: Politics, participation and (re)presentation (pp. 89–103). Clevedon, UK: Channel View Publications.

Smith, M. (2009). Issues in cultural tourism studies.2nd edition. London: Routledge.




RQ Scandic

Friday, November 7th, 2014

As a hotel chain dependent on the suppliers, how was it possible for Scandic to evolve their sustainability approach? How did they involve the suppliers in the process?

2012 London Olympic Games. Etivity 4

Sunday, November 2nd, 2014

Our initial research questions were focusing on London and the outcomes of having the Olympic Games in 2012 and what else can they improve for the future mega-events. Initially the RQ had a different order, but after further assessment, the most logical order would be:

1)      How is it possible to conceive and realize a big event such as the Olympic Games in a sustainable way?

2)      What touristic, economical, environmental, political, social and cultural impacts did the 2012 London Olympic Games have on the city?

3)      Taking as an example the 2012 London Olympics, what can be drawn from that experience for future mega events?


The main purpose of the research is to find out the implications the city had to go through before, during, but mostly after the Games; The paper should answer questions such as: what did they learn? did it affect the communities and the environment? and if it had, how exactly?  has it had a positive impact? and what exactly can they expect from future events? Also, there was the idea of gathering information about the associations deciding what needed to be done in order for the event to be sustainable friendly.

The alteration in the research questions was made in order for the whole paper to have a more fluid and logical course, starting with describing big events and how sustainability can be a part of them, following the impacts the event had on the city and concluding with what can the city learn and use in the future.

So, all these questions would be answered following the order of the new RQ, starting with describing and explaining the whole Olympic Games experience in London 2012 and getting some insight on big events and how they have dealt with sustainability throughout the years. This information could be gathered by looking into past big events both in the UK and in the World to see if there was any type of pattern in implementing sustainable actions. Then would be looking into the London Olympic Games, more specifically the outcomes, to establish if it was possible to held a mega event and incorporate sustainability into it and how can they benefit from this.

Moreover, the next part of the assignment would be to start analyzing the exact impacts of the Olympic Games on London, from an economical, touristic, environmental, social, political and cultural point of view. Gathering this sort of data would be helpful in getting the complete image of London after the Games and also contributing to the knowledge that future host cities could use. Knowing exactly what implications these impacts had, would help on assessing whether or not the event was successful and profitable, on solving any arising issues and on putting every piece of information together to form the whole outcome of this event. More specifically, if London had to gain or lose from hosting this event, whether is too early to know the impacts on the community and if there are some that we know, how could those impacts be used for the city’s advantage. Also, pointing out how the tourism sector affects the host communities and the whole output of the event, if it influences positively or negatively the environment and the city.

The final research question would follow the other two in discussing the whole Olympic Games experience in London 2012, combining the information gathered in RQ1 about the possibilities of implementing sustainability into the event and RQ2 about the impacts the whole event had on the city to conclude the event’s success and gathering insight that could be used in the future events. Having information on whether or not is possible to use sustainability in mega events, and learning how London has done it and what outcomes it had, could be a huge step forward in knowing how to deal with future projects, not only for the UK, but also for other future host countries and its communities.


Relevant literature:


1)      Deng, Y., & Poon, S. W. (2013). Meeting sustainability challenges of mega-event flagships. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management,20(1), 46-62.

2)      Gaffney, C. (2013). Between discourse and reality: the un-sustainability of mega-event planning. Sustainability5(9), 3926-3940.

3)      MacKenzie, J. D. (2006). Moving towards sustainability in the Olympic games planning process (Doctoral dissertation, Department of Geography-Simon Fraser University).

4)      Paquette, J. (2010). The interpretation of environmental sustainability (ES) by the IOC/Olympic Games 1994-2008.

5)      Raj, R., & Musgrave, J. (Eds.). (2009). Event management and sustainability. CABI.

6)      Roche, M. (2002). Megaevents and modernity: Olympics and expos in the growth of global culture. Routledge.


1)      Andranovich, G., Burbank, M. J., & Heying, C. H. (2001). Olympic cities: lessons learned from mega‐event politics. Journal of urban affairs23(2), 113-131.

2)      Gardner, J. W. (2013). Five Rings: Enclosing the London 2012 Olympic Games. Papers from the Institute of Archaeology23(1), Art-9.

3)      Jennings, W. (2012). Olympic risks. Palgrave Macmillan.

4)      Richards, S. & Wilkes, K. (2014). Tourism in England: London 2012 Olympic Games and beyond. In Costa, Panyik & Buhalis European Tourism Planning and Organisation Systems (pp. 28-43). Bristol: Channel View Publications.

5)      Sadd, D. (2012). Mega-events, community stakeholders and legacy: London 2012 (Doctoral dissertation, Bournemouth University).


1)      Coalter, F. (2004). London 2012: a sustainable sporting legacy. After the Goldrush: a sustainable Olympics for London. London: ippr and Demos.

2)      Girginov, V. (2011). Governance of London 2012 Olympic Games legacy.International review for the sociology of sport, 1012690211413966

3)      Pappas, N. (2014). Hosting mega events: Londoners’ support of the 2012 Olympics. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management21, 10-17.

4)      Raco, M. (2014). Sustainable city‐building and the new politics of the possible: reflections on the governance of the London Olympics 2012. Area.

5)      Smith, A. (2013). “De-Risking” East London: Olympic Regeneration Planning 2000–2012. European Planning Studies, (ahead-of-print), 1-21.4


Northern Cyprus – E4

Sunday, November 2nd, 2014

Sources for case study – Karpaz Region – Northern Cyprus

The following sources are related to our case study and will help us to back up the conduct of this research. The aim of our case study is to find out and analyze the perceptions of tourism experts on the environmental impacts of the accommodation in the city of Bafra, region of Karpaz. Also, the case focuses on the hotel sector and sustainable policies which tourism managers and hotel managers need to use and implement. Therefore, diverse sources are going to be used and analyzed.

  1. Mehmet Altinay Kashif Hussain, (2005),”Sustainable tourism development: a case study of North Cyprus”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.

This source serves as our case study and describes the hotel sector developments in Northern Cyprus, which is exactly the focus of our project. It helps us to go deeper into the knowledge of the new 300M dollar investment in 6 luxury Hotels in Bafra, Northern Cyprus and its impact on the region’s environment.

  1. Okan Veli ŞAFAKLI, (2010), “Ignored richness of tourism in Northern Cyprus”, e-Review of Tourism Research (eRTR), Vol. 8, No. 5

This research shows the general overview of tourism’s take in the economy of Northern Cyprus. Serious structural and managerial issues such as lack of institutional planning, physical planning, environmental planning, professional marketing, autonomous management structure, and coordination among relevant authorities are the biggest challenges for the creation of sustainable tourism practices in the region.

  1. John Sadler, (2004), Chapter 7 – Sustainable Tourism Planning in Northern Cyprus – of “Coastal Mass Tourism: Diversification and Sustainable Development in Southern Europe”

The given source provides us with better understanding of the tools which are used to develop coastal mass tourism planning in a sustainable way.  Having the required tools and directives in order to manage the inclusion of mentioned 6 Hotels in the Karpaz coast, with a sustainable tourism planning, is an important issue, due to preserving the Karpaz area, whose strength lies in its natural beauty. This research provides for the political conditions of an unrecognized and unknown state for developing tourism. It analyzes the proposition of geographically and politically isolated state applying the alternative natural resource-based tourism objectives.

  1. Elena Ligay, (2011), “An Assessment of ‘Governance’ for Sustainable Tourism Development: the case of North Cyprus. “, Master Thesis for Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Eastern Mediterranean University.

“The assessment for Governance for Sustainable Tourism Development” is a master thesis by a tourism graduate student at Eastern Mediterranean University. It explains the EU and UN requirements for leading the tourism industry in Northern Cyprus. The assumption is that, North Cyprus lacks the favourable and effective environment/governance – political economic, legal, social – if such structure exists at all, to incorporate sustainable principles in its tourism development. This study argues that sustainability/sustainable development is best viewed as a socially instituted process of adaptive change in which innovation is a necessary element.

  1. Dr. Bulent Kanol, (2005), “Sustainable Tourism Development in Northern Cyprus and Prospects for Convergence”

Tourism sector can be a leading sector in Northern Cyprus economy and contribute to a healthy convergence of the two currently separate economies in Cyprus through adopting a sustainable tourism development based on quality and special interest tourism when there is a political solution. Furthermore, this paper focuses on cooperation in the area of tourism that  might be a leverage for a peaceful path to this solution process between Northern Cyprus and the Republic of Cyprus.

  1. World Tourism Organization, (1995). “What tourism managers need to know: A practical guide to the development and use of indicators of sustainable tourism”

This book intends to provide the information necessary to understand better tourism’s links with, and impacts on, the natural and cultural environments within which the industry operates, and on which it largely depends.

  1. World Tourism Organization, (1998). “Guide for local authorities on Developing sustainable tourism” 65-96.

This master guide presents concepts, principles and techniques for planning, developing and managing tourism which can be used by local authorities of Bafra and Karpaz region.

  1. Jonathan Warner (1999) North Cyprus: Tourism and the Challenge of Non-recognition, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 7:2, 128-145

Northern Cyprus has been slow to develop, giving an important opportunity to the Turkish Cypriot community to avoid the pitfalls of the south. The growth of interest in alternative forms of tourism worldwide presents an opportunity for development to take place even where political problems exist, and to be both environmentally sensitive and profitable. This paper explores the possibilities currently available to the Turkish Cypriots, and recommends that resources should be switched from traditional ‘sun, sand and sea’ tourism towards alternative types.

  1. Esra Gunsoy & Kevin Hannam (2012) Conflicting Perspectives of Residents in the Karpaz Region of Northern Cyprus towards Tourism Development, Tourism Planning & Development, 9:3, 309-320

Key factor for development in Karpaz region has its grounds in tourism. It is the beauty of unspoilt nature and well-preserved traditional lifestyle that has influenced the emergence of community tourism as the most appropriate product of Northern Cyprus government in promoting the region’s tourism. This paper researches on the conflicting attitudes towards tourism between Turkish settlers and Cypriot residents and the changing nature of the community due to migrations from the Mainland Turkey and its impact on social and cultural identity of Northern Cyprus.

  1. Esra Gunsoy & Kevin Hannam, (2013). Festivals, community development and sustainable tourism in the Karpaz region of Northern Cyprus, Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 5:1, 81-94

The organization of festivals has recently been emphasized in the Karpaz region of Northern Cyprus as a strategy for sustainable tourism development. Community-oriented festivals are used as a tool for community development and the social construct of Cypriot identity to preserve the community, which is the focus of sustainable tourism development on the island.

 Research Questions for the case study of sustainable tourism development in Karpaz region, Northern Cyprus:

  • How can development of luxury hotels in Karpaz comply with the tourism sustainable strategy of Northern Cyprus?
  • How can policies be developed to preserve the natural beauty in Karpaz region in time of hotel construction?
  • How to preserve the Cypriot identity and community tourism in time of luxury tourism development?

Group members:  Miguel Angel Lozano, Gonzalo Adell, Ernest Samsonchyk, Viktor Husag

Tourism growth and sustainability, what are the implications for developing countries?

Thursday, October 30th, 2014

Valeria Guttilla EMTM

Research question: Tourism growth and sustainability, what are the implications for developing countries?


Literature about tourism sustainability and tourism growth:


1.  Gössling S,. Hall M,. Peeters, Scott. (2010).The Future of Tourism: Can Tourism Growth and Climate Policy be Reconciled? A Mitigation Perspective. Tourism Recreation Research Vol. 35, No. 2.

This paper writes about the role that some sub-sectors of tourism have in generating emissions and suggests some actions that can mitigate their impact on the environment. It also discusses some of the barriers within the industry impeding the application of Kyoto protocol.


2. Saarinen, J. (2013). Critical Sustainability: Setting the Limits to Growth and Responsibility in Tourism. Sustainability 2014, 6, 1-17.

This paper treats the “frustration” among scholars on the nature of the concept of sustainability and how it is applied in the industry. It tries to understand the two visions and to find a common ground on which to build the future idea of tourism sustainability.


3. Burns, P.M. and Bibbings, L.J. (2009) The end of tourism? Climate change and societal changes. 21st Century Society, 4 (1): pp. 31-51.

This paper aims at highlighting how tourism will change due to climate change and it tries to analyze the different aspects and contradictions of tourism that obstacle the adoption of sustainable measures.


Literature about sustainability measures adopted by developing countries:


1. Kimura H,. (2011). Tourism, sustainable tourism and ecoturism in developing countries.Paper for ANDA International Conference in Nagoya March 5-7, 2011.

The author tries to analyze the tourism growth in south east Asia and the potential for this growth to take on a sustainability path.


2. Sustainable Tourism for Development Guidebook. (2013). Enhancing capacities for Sustainable Tourism for development in developing countries.World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)

The Guidebook tries to demonstrate how the tourism sector can be a vehicle to foster economic and social growth. It brings forward the idea that it can do so while minimizing negative social, cultural and environmental impact. It analyses the complexity of tourism and its relation with the whole economic and social fabrics. It is divided in different parties: guidance note, methodology and situation analysis.


3. Clifton J,. Benson A,. (2006). Planning for Sustainable Ecotourism: The Case for Research Ecotourism in Developing Country Destinations. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14:3, 238-254.

This paper aims at identifying the results of a specific branch of ecotourism: the ‘research ecotourism’ in a developing country destination. It attempts in doing so by taking into consideration a broader picture: the effects ecotourism have upon local economic benefits, changes in socio-cultural attributes of residents and communities as well as the protection of the natural environment. It also consider the potential ecotourism can have on opening up new destinations for subsequent mass tourism development and the need for adequate planning and management of this process.


Books that may deepen my research and broaden my knowledge about sustainability and its impact on developing countries’ economy:


1. Stern N,.(2007). The Economics of Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.

Accurate analysis of part 2 “Impacts of Climate Change on Growth and Development”. In particular chapter 4 that considers the implications of climate change for developing countries. It explains why developing countries are so vulnerable to climate change. Part 5: “Policy Responses for Adaptation” in particular chapter 20 explores the particular issue of how developing countries can adapt to climate change.


2. Gössling S,. Hall M., (2006). Tourism and Global Environmental Change. Routledge.

Focus on Part 1 “Environments” relating to changes in different regions of the world (Deserts and savannah).


3. Wahab S,. Pigram J,.(1997). Tourism, development and growth. Routledge.

Particular attention at “Part II Trends in tourism—limits to growth?” for the general analysis of my paper and at “Part III Balancing tourism growth with sustainability” for the analysis on developing countries.

E-tivity 4. Scandic group

Wednesday, October 29th, 2014

Since my group was working on researching sustainability issues in Scandic hotel chain, I came up with my possible research question:

To what extent Scandic is implementing CSR in its everyday life?


1. Murray Mackenzie & Mike Peters (2014) Hospitality Managers’ Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility: An Explorative Study, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 19:3, 257-272.

This study provides us with the example of how CSR is understood by the actual employees of the hotels. Although the study is completed only in particular area – Hong Kong, it is still relevant to compare the results with the researches made in Europe.

2. Bohdanowicz, P., Simanic, B., & Martinac, I. (2005). Environmental training and measures at Scandic hotels, Sweden. Tourism Review International, 9(1), 7–19.

The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the environmental proactiveness and ground-breaking work that has been carried out within the Scandic hotel chain over the past decade. This is an account of how environmental responsibility can become a top corporate priority and lead to significantly decreased environmental impacts, excellent economic performance, and a considerably upgraded environmental image.

3. Jessica Foote , Nolan Gaffney & James R. Evans (2010) Corporate social responsibility: Implications for performance excellence, Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 21:8, 799-812.

This paper examines the underlying corporate social responsibility value proposition within the Baldrige Criteria in comparison with current academic thought. It gives a broad overview on how does the Baldrige Criteria help to reach the excellence in performing. It states that corporate social responsibility has a significant impact on company’s performance.

4. Paulina Bohdanowicz & Piotr Zientara (2008) Corporate Social Responsibility in Hospitality: Issues and Implications. A Case Study of Scandic, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 8:4, 271-293.

A case study presented by P. Bohdanowicz and P. Zientara provides with information how CSR can be differently perceived by employees, customers or managers. Scandic is used as a good example in hospitality industry for its organisational commitment, which brings best results in providing services and making customers content.

5. De Grosbois, D. (2012). Corporate social responsibility reporting by the global hotel industry: Commitment, initiatives and performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(3), 896–905.

This study focuses on hotel industry. Issues of implementation and reporting of CSR efforts are especially relevant and critical for the tourism industry, which while potentially bringing economic and social benefits to destinations can also have huge negative economic, social, and environmental impacts. The paper investigates websites of different hotels through Europe  and how each of them presents CSR performance.


Etivity 4 – Low Cost Airline and its sustainability

Wednesday, October 29th, 2014

Case topic: Low cost airline and its sustainability

Literature review:

Donzelli, M. (2010). The effect of low-cost air transportation on the local economy: Evidence from Southern Italy. Journal of Air Transport Management,16(3), 121-126.

The paper reviews the advantages low-cost carriers had brought to destinations in Southern Italy, focusing on growth of local economics. The study shows that the LCC make it easier for international travellers to access destinations in Southern Italy and therefore help to attract more visitors, resulting in creating more job opportunity and the increase of income. It demonstrates the beneficial side of LCC and helps us to find out the general and direct contribution of LCC.

Chung, J. Y., & Whang, T. (2011). The impact of low cost carriers on Korean Island tourism. Journal of Transport Geography19(6), 1335-1340.

The article examines the influences of low cost carriers on Jeju Island, a popular destination in South Korean and analyzed the positive and negative effects of LCC. It illustrated that even though the operation of LCC creates economic benefits of the island, it does not help to eliminate the traffic fluctuation of peak season. Taking the case as example, we could take a deeper look into the destinations of LCC, inspecting the impacts and contributions of it, from the view point in Asia countries.

Olipra, L. (2012). The impact of low-cost carriers on tourism development in less famous destinations. Cittaslow 2012.

The paper presents that for cutting down the budget, the strategy of LCC is to fly to secondary and regional airport instead of the main international airport and that had generated new tourist demand for those less popular cities. The study once again confirmed the positive influence of low cost carriers in different and new destinations, and it also took the environmental issues into account. With the reference, we learn how the secondary destinations become more famous and what are the problems needed to be considered while developing them.

Barbot, C. (2006). Low-cost airlines, secondary airports, and state aid: An economic assessment of the Ryanair–Charleroi Airport agreement. Journal of Air Transport Management12(4), 197-203.

The article uses the example of the contract of Ryanair and Charleroi to display how secondary airports and low cost carriers cooperate with each other to lower the price as well as bring more visitors. From the review, we can understand the basic ideas of the business model in LCC and airport.

Dennis, Nigel (2004) Can the European low-cost airline boom continue? Implications for regional airports. In: 44th European Congress of the European Regional Science Association, 25-29 Aug 2004, Porto, Portugal. http://westminsterresearch.wmin.ac.uk/480/

The paper reflects the expansion and growth of LCC in Europe and assesses their business model, arguing that the development of LCC is getting more difficult and LCC will become more similar to traditional airlines, due to the changes of secondary/regional airport where LCC fly to. With the knowledge of the future of LCC and regional airport might turn into, we have a greater insight of understanding how it could be more sustainable in both aspect of carriers and passengers.

Yi Ling Chen (Yining)

Activity 4

Wednesday, October 29th, 2014


Our group presentation topic concerns the impact of low cost carrier on secondary airports and the respective cities.  This has inspired me to look into the social impacts of tourism, especially huge influx of tourist.  I will seek to understand social impacts of a particular city by interpreting the media coverage.  At this stage, I have yet to decide on the case study city.  My individual paper research question is as follows:

Understanding and lack of understanding of social impacts of tourism: a case study

Research sub-questions:

  • What are the latest agenda of social impacts of tourism?
  • How far do tourism decision making bodies understand social impacts of tourism?
  • How are the social impacts of tourism perceived in the lens of media?
  • How may the gaps (if any) in the understanding of social impacts of tourism be bridged?

Rethinking social impacts of tourism research: A new research agenda

This article provides an overview of the developments of research on social impacts.  It has succinctly summarized the specific social impacts of tourism on communities found in previous studies.  It serves as a good starting point of understanding Social impacts of tourism at large


The social impacts of tourism a case study of Bath, UK

This is an empirical study of the social impacts of tourism on the residents of Bath.  It focuses on the historic centre of Bath, a renowned tourist attraction.  The study reveals that lack of public engagement of the local resident may have contributed to the dissatisfaction towards tourism in Bath.


Research Brief on “Individual Visit Scheme”

This is a research brief prepared by the Legislative Council (equivalent of a Parliament) Secretariat, Hong Kong.  While the Hong Kong Government had already emphasized the economic benefits of the Individual Travel Scheme for tourists from Mainland China, the author of this brief cautioned that social impacts of surge in the number of tourists, in particular Mainland Chinese tourists under the Individual Travel Scheme, are continuously felt by residents of Hong Kong


Responsible tourism Whose responsibility?

This chapter, taken from the Routledge handbook of tourism and the environment, discusses the difficulties of implementing responsible tourism.  The author points out that, as far as the practice of responsible tourism is concerned, there exists a value-action gap.  The author further suggests that efforts to implement responsible tourism should be direct at those people and organisations involved in the planning and management of tourism.


Place change and tourism development conflict: Evaluating public interest


This article discussed a development debate in Gold Coast, Australia.  The author argued that the Governmet took a neoliberal approach to the development ofa cruise terminal.  As a result, the local and community perspectives were sidelined.  The author calls for a reinvigoration of public interest conception in tourism destination development.



Deery, M., Jago, L., & Fredline, L. (2012). Rethinking social impacts of tourism research: A new research agenda. Tourism Management, 33(1), 64-73. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2011.01.026

Dredge, D. (2010). Place change and tourism development conflict: Evaluating public interest. Tourism Management, 31(1), 104-112. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2009.01.004

Haley, A. J., Snaith, T., & Miller, G. (2005). The social impacts of tourism a case study of Bath, UK. Annals of Tourism Research, 32(3), 647-668. doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2004.10.009

Legislative Council Secretariat, H. K. (2014). Research Brief on “Individual Visit Scheme”.  Hong Kong Retrieved from http://www.legco.gov.hk/research-publications/english/1314rb06-individual-visit-scheme-20140507-e.pdf.

Sharpley, R. (2013). Responsible tourism Whose responsibility? In A. Holden & D. A. Fennell (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of tourism and the environment (pp. 382-391). New York: Routledge.


by Jeffrey WONG

Literature Review of Case Study: Scandic Hotels

Tuesday, October 28th, 2014

We have chosen this hotel in particular because of its relevance in the hospitality industry as the very first one to incorporate sustainability in their cultures.

We have taken a closer look to the steps taken in order to be sustainable and focus on two main areas: Energy and water consumption. Since these are inevitable to not use specially in hotels, we want to study the following research question:

“To what extend the reduction of consumption in energy and water affects the social responsibility of the hotel?”

To reply this, we have found the following literature:

– Water Management and Responsibility in Hotels, Tuppen. H., (2013, March, 22), Green Hotelier.

– Water. Retrieved from http://www.tourismpartnership.org/what-we-do/key-issues-water

Water is an important source mentioned by many articles and journals about green issue, the big problem which we will meet is water shortage in 2030, the demand of water will exceed 40% than supply. According to UNWTO, in 2020 the international tourism will reach to 1.6 billion trips, and generally, the water consumption occupied the 10% of the hotel bills.

These two articles above are trying to communicate to the society about the problem, and show how the hotels can take action using certain approaches and method to diminish the consumption of water in their business which can contribute to reduce the environmental impact, and saving the cost at same time.

Our intention with them is to compare the action taken in Scandic Hotel (because they post in their home page saying that they have reduced 24% of water consumption from 1996 to 2013) to the issues mentioned in those articles, in order to find out if their doing it right or in a good manner or they are reducing at the expense of quality and take sustainability as a market strategy.

– Bohdanowicz, P. (2006). Responsible resource management in hotels:attitudes, indicators and strategies.

Focusing on Bohdanowicz’s thesis, we can see the internal actions that Scandic has taken in order to be more sustainable. It provides us with statistics and the different staff education training and other ecological initiatives.

– Aura Light delivers sustainable lighting to Scandic Hotels. (2014, June, 9). Aura Lights International

We have seen in their live report that the reduction of energy consumption is 34%, one of the areas they have most reduced in. In the articles posted, we can appreciate that they have taken actions such as implementing energy-saving bulbs in their rooms, among other reforms in the rooms.

 – Heesbeen, Lars. (2014). Corporate Social Responsibility: A case study for Scandic Hotels. Retrieved from: http://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/77723/Thesis%20Lars%20Heesbeen.pdf?sequence=1 

This study tells us about how CSR matches people, profit and environment as all relatives one to another. Being sustainable not only is benefitial for the environment, but it’s also a huge contributor to the costs savings. We have reports and statistics that the hotel posts showing the difference they’ve made right after implementing this natural step. 

Writers: Ana Wang Huang / Si Wang Huang

STD Literature Review // London Olympics – David

Tuesday, October 28th, 2014

Buckley, R. (2012). Sustainable tourism: Research and reality. Annals of Tourism Research39(2), 528-546.

A quite comprehensive review of academic literature on sustainable tourism to date. The author’s key points are that only very little attempts have been made to understand and evaluate tourism and sustainability on a global scale (not only case studies). An interesting fact includes that tourism has accounted for 3.2 per cent of global electricity usage and 5 per cent of man-made climate change in 2001. The only reaction to this has thus far been private-sector self regulation, which in the opinion of the author are basically ineffective in producing any meaningful improvement of the situation. Tourist demand is also not going to cut it: hardly any tourists specifically select tourist products based on sustainability attributes alone but rather expect sustainable practices routinely. Another unsolved problem is measurement: we still haven’t found a way to quantify social or environmental impacts in a useful way. However, the fact that tourism as a whole is very far from sustainability is quite obvious. While there are a handful of tourism enterprises with positive triple bottom lines, the industry as a whole continues to lobby against any enforced regulation. The author therefore highlights the need for more regulation on the tourism sector in order to use tourism as a means to increase the amount of protected areas and fight climate change (to name a few).


Liu, Z. (2003). Sustainable tourism development: A critique. Journal of sustainable tourism11(6), 459-475.

Liu reviews the literature on sustainable tourism development this far and critiques some of its weaknesses. The author begins by reviewing definitions for sustainable development (Brundtland 1987) and sustainable tourism development (UNWTO 2001). The author then formulates 6 main points which he/she thinks need to be addressed to move forward in our understanding of sustainable tourism development.

1)    Demand: most literature simply assumes that demand will remains steady or rise. This is a faulty assumption, since destinations are increasingly competing for visitors and a steady or increasing flow of tourists should not be taken for granted. The author argues that this assumption probably stems from the fact that the sustainable tourism development definition is basically borrowed from that of sustainable development, where constant or increasing demand is a given. It is the preference of tourists alone which direct demand to or away from a certain destination. Tourism attractions or “resources” only become attractions/resources because of their relative value to the marketplace.

2)    We shouldn’t/mustn’t preserve ALL natural resources. It is important to preserve and care for rare and unique sights – this is also the key to achieving competitiveness in tourism. The tourist attractions are at the core of the destination and determine the maximum potential tourism capacity of the destination. Infrastructure and other amenities determine the actual tourism capacity. Yet me must remember that the concept of “resources” as such is functional and cultural. Referring to Zimmermann (1951): Resources are not, they become. So how do we know what future generations/demand will value? What will be considered a valuable or unique resource and what won’t?

3)    The host population is often not empowered enough to take control of the local tourism system. While it’s important to involve the locals and “make them happy” (because they form part of the tourism product, which of course we want to be good), we fail to realize that their community is highly heterogeneous and contains uneven distributions of power and status. Tourism is likely to sustain or increase the unjust relationships rather than break them.

4)    Is the social influence of tourists really that bad? The author argues that the often condemned “Western” culture may not be so bad at all and that tourism can help bring Western values and beliefs such as fairness, openness or human rights into the destination. Traditional societies are not necessarily better than modern ones. People from the traditional societies might actually be quite happy to become more “modern” themselves if they were only given the chance. The author argues that the “McDonaldization” or “Coca-Colaisation” is not the sole product of tourism but rather that of modern telecommunication and information technology. The paradox is that we tell the host populations to stay traditional (“authentic”) so that they can become modern as a result of the tourism this generates.

5)    We still haven’t found a way to accurately measure sustainability. The general criticism is that we often have “too much of a good thing” ruining tourist destinations. The author criticises the concept of carrying capacities and says we should rather ask ourselves how many changes to a destination are acceptable in return for development.

6)    Eco-tourism and other prefix-tourism concepts are a niche solution to a macro-problem that spans across the entire globe. Prefix tourism is NOT the answer to the problem. We must make mass tourism sustainable. All other niche products are just failing to properly address the problem or being misused for marketing purposes.


Matheson, V. (2006). Mega-Events: The effect of the world’s biggest sporting events on local, regional, and national economies.

A study on the economic impacts of mega events across the globe. Generally, the authors compare the projected economic benefit EX ANTE (before) with the actual measurable economic benefit (or cost) after the event (EX POST).

In short it turns out the most projections are hugely over-estimating the economic benefit of the event while down-playing the costs necessary to hosts. This is because the people/companies making these projections are direct benefiting from the event e.g. the Olympic Committee. Listening to them might therefore not be a good choice since there are very biased (think of a Salesman).

Looking at the net economic effect after various mega events, it’s safe to say that most events have hugely underperformed relative to what they were promised to deliver. Many infrastructure investments are so event-specific that they are literally useless after the event, simply sunk costs.

Employment rates etc. literally seem not be show any long term effect by mega events at all. In recent years, and after 9/11 in particular, the Olympic committee’s safety standards have become incredibly high. The additional cost for security, police etc. just seems overwhelming to some states.

In this light, it doesn’t seem surprising that there are actually less and less cities trying to become the hosts for the next Olympic games. Maybe governments and/or people have realized that the games don’t deliver what they promised… We might just be left with rich countries and/or totalitarian regimes which can push for hosting the games with or without their people’s consent.


Coalter, F. (2004). London 2012: a sustainable sporting legacy. After the Goldrush: a sustainable Olympics for London. London: ippr and Demos.

This paper looks at how the London Olympic Games (OG) could help the nation become more active and healthy. One of the claims of those in favour of the OG is that it can induce a more active lifestyle upon the population. The basic idea is that through high media coverage and strong role models, people would be encouraged to take up sports and become more active. This notion is part of England’s “Game Plan” strategy which aims at increasing the nation’s level of activity by no less than 100 per cent.

The authors argue that the connoted “Olympic Effect” is by no means an automatic trickle-down effect but needs very careful planning as well as numerous additional development projects. In short, the government needs to invest heavily in grass-roots participation of sports clubs and bodies to market and promote their sport. This can be done through “mini-games” before and after the OG to get the local population involved. It also needs investment in HR to make sure coaches and other staff is available to cater for increased interest in the sport. Further, the concept of powerful role models needs to be carefully considered. Constructing a good role model is a balancing act and quite difficult to achieve: we need to consider basic factors such as race or gender but also the way his/her abilities are perceived by the public: does the role models success seem achievable to others i.e. does it motivate people to pick up the sport or does it seem out of reach (in this case it might not be motivating at all). London 2012 seems to recognize this, stating the Games need to be supported by the following developments:

  • Sustained government investment
  • Local authority commitment to sport
  • Re-establishing sport in schools
  • Developing grass roots coaching programs
  • Commitment of Department of Health to sport and physical activity.

The authors conclude that, at best, the OG can function as a catalyst for other investments and development in sports participation. We must see the OG as but one element in a larger and more integrated strategy (Game Plan). Only then can they succeed in changing the publics values and attitudes towards sports and exercise. On a cynical note: if the government would actually realize all the “supporting infrastructure” to harness the positive potential of the OG, one might wonder if the OG were needed at all to achieve the Game Plan’s objective. While the investments without the OG seem unlikely though, we might best regard the event as stimulus for the necessary developments.


Possible Research Question:

What was the role of the “Commission for a Sustainable London 2012” (CSL) in the London 2012 Olympics? Can the CSL become a model for future Olympic Games?


Tuesday, October 28th, 2014

Articles and research

Research ideas- Group work Sustainable Wine Tourism

Our group work is related to the importance of the wine tourism industry as a potential tool of Sustainable Rural Development.

I feel interested on this topic due to the fact of the wine-growing culture in Southern Europe and its potential sustainable development in the rural areas.

Over time, the behavior and values of tourists are changing who are becoming more demanding as a consequence of the search of new products and activities in a different environment. A new sensitivity is shown by awareness of environmental and economical issues which brings the opportunity to an emerging new form of tourism.

Therefore, taking into account the context in which operated the case of study “Rural areas”, I am considering others topics related to this one for my assignment.

Research question Group Work:

“What are the specific Impacts of sustainable oenotourism to the local community in a rural area?” The case of the Study Oliver town British Columbia.

Potential sub question:

“In what extent does the oenotourism contribute to the development of rural areas within the approach of Sustainability indicators?”

“What are the positive and negative impacts of sustainable oenotourism at the local community level and how to eliminate or lessen the negative effects?”


1. Poltras,L.& Getz,D. (2006) Sustainable Wine Tourism. The Host Community Perspective. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14(5), p.425-448.

2. Getz, Donald; Andersson, Tommy. (2014) Foodies and Food Tourism: Goodfellow Publishers.

3. Blancas, F.J.,Lozano-Oyola M. (2011). How to use sustainability indicators for tourism Planning. The case of rural tourism. Science of the Total Environment.31-33.

4. Gilbert, David C. (1992). Touristic Development of a Viticultural Region of Spain. International Journal of Wine Marketing, 4 (2), 15-22.

5. http://www2.unwto.org/ World Tourism Organization Website.

Accessed on September 2014.

Why are these articles relevant to the questions?

The first article is the case of study chosen. It gives us a description of the town under study in our research, as well as the main viticulture features which characterize this town. The second source is a book, which show us the best theoretical framework related to the gastronomy industry. The following article invites us to make a slightly deeper study of the potential indicators of sustainability applied to existing tourism destinations in rural areas. The fourth one represents one of the initiatives to promote tourism in rural areas with a potential future plan to include wine and a gastronomy program.

The last one corresponds to the World Tourism Organization website through which we have obtained the definition of “Sustainable Tourism” and it is being mentioned several times through the paper.

The United Nations World Tourism Organization is the agency responsible for the promotion of sustainable and accessible tourism. Metaphorically speaking is the supreme law and most relevant source in the field of Tourism which promotes tourism as a driver of economic growth within a development and environmental sustainability.


By Lorena Caro

Etivity 4- Gastronomic tourism

Tuesday, October 28th, 2014

Possible research question:

What impact does creating a gastronomic destination has on the local society and to what extent is the local community involved and supporting the process? In the case of Gokceada.

H. Ridvan Yurtseven, PhD. & Necati Karakas. (March 2013). Creating a Sustainable Gastronomic Destination: The Case of Cittaslow Gokceada-Turkey. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, Vol. 3 No. 3; March 2013

This article explained the practices of Cittaslow Gokceada on the process of becoming a sustainable gastronomic destination. Considering the local and authentic natures, gastronomy can truly be held to be resources for tourism and not just attractions to encourage it. Food not only can increase the value of a destination, but also increase their own valueL local identify is expressed by land and by food. Sustainable gastronomy implies that communities can evolve socially and economically whilst keeping an eco-nutritional commitment to environmental sustainability and the optimal health of members of the community.

H. Ridvan Yurtseven, Ph.D. Sustainable Gastronomic Tourism in Gokceada (Imbros): Local and Authentic Perspectives. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 1 No. 18

This article measured Gokceada (Imbros) visitors’ perceptions of key sustainable gastronomic tourism elements in terms of importance and satisfaction analysis to identify strengths and gaps of Gokceada as a sustainable gastronomic tourist destination for repositioning its strategy. Gastronomy  is the vital driving force of differing cultures and the key to sustaining and developing tourism. For all tourists, though perhaps here for the new tourist in particular, where all facets of the holiday are crucial, gastronomy provides the opportunity for valued experiences to be internalized.

Tulay Cengiz, Ferah Ozkok & Cigdem Kaptam Ayhan. (2011). Participation of the local community in the tourism development of Imbros (Gokceada), African journal of agricultural research Vol. 6(16), pp. 3832-3840, 18 August, 2011.

This article analysed the tourism potential of Gokceada, determines the problems in relation with the development of tourism and provides suggestions on the planning of the island for the sake of sustainable development. the potential of the island, which possesses significant attractions, has to be set forth, planned and developed. The perceptions of the community of the island on the effects of tourism have been examined by determining the current state of tourism and the problems related with tourism, with the participation of the local community.

Korel Göymen. (2000) TOURISM AND GOVERNANCE IN TURKEY, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 1025-1048, 2000

This article indicated that tourism in Turkey developed in stages, constantly interacting with political, social, and economic components of the policy. During most of the stages the state played a dominant role. But since the 80s, the dynamics of governance has triggered a gradual transformation from a basically state-sponsored and managed development to different forms of public-private partnership, a process curtailed, however, by the political culture.

Farzad Sattari Ardabili, Es-hagh Rasouli, Shahram Mirzaie Daryani, Manouchehr Molaie & Bahman Sharegi. (2011) The Role of Food and Culinary Condition in Tourism Industry, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 9 (6): 826-833, 2011

This article discussed various effective techniques for attracting tourists’ attention, additionally pointed out some attempts made in different states for achieving desirability of food, its ingredients and delivering problems from world travelers’ view.

Gastronomic tourism and Gokceada reference list

Tuesday, October 28th, 2014

Reference list:

Dallen J. Timothy & Amos S. Ron (2013). Understanding heritage tourism: identity, image, authenticity, and change. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 8: 2-3, 99-104

From the hospitality management point of view, food and beverage service is a basic necessity and one of the three most prominent activities tourists engage in: sightseeing, shopping and dining. This article explores what is the relationship between tourism and heritage cuisine and how foodways help co-create destination image, establish regional or national identity, develop a destination and offer (in)authentic feeling to tourists, seeking genuine experience.


B. Okumus, F. Okumus, B. McKercher (2007). Incorporating local and international cuisines in the marketing of tourism destinations: The cases of Hong Kong and Turkey. Tourism Management, 28: 253-261

Through analysis of promotional materials such as brochures, booklets and websites, the authors look at how two different destinations – Hong Kong and Turkey – use food as a mean of attracting tourists and how can destinations differentiate among themselves using traditional cuisine. They find that Hong Kong as a destination extensively uses local and international cuisines as their core positioning statement, while Turkey focuses on local, to tourists exotic, cuisine.


S. Gössling, B. Garrod, C. Aall, J. Hille, P. Peeters (2011). Food management in tourism: Reducing tourism’s carbon foodprint. Tourism management, 32: 534-543

This article reviews how food production for tourism purposes effects the greenhouse gases emissions and to what extent can managing these emissions by tourism industry can mitigate climate change. Mass food production process is extremely complex, but there is a number of measures that can be taken in order to reduce carbon footprint in tourism-related food production chains.

K. Göymen (2000). Tourism and governance in Turkey. Annals of Tourism Research, 27: 1025-1048

Study focuses on general tourism development in Turkey and how the state has affected the growth of tourism importance for the country’s economy. Particularly interesting is the transition from to almost exclusively state-managed development to different forms of public-private partnerships. In regard to Gokceada case, the relationship between state and tourism sector is of great importance, above all in the field of financing various projects.

Sibel E. Kilic & M. Aydogan (2014). Spatial reflections of population movements in Gokceada and sustainable tourism. European Planning Studies, 22:11, 2213-2230

Gokceada has faced many changes through recent years due to internal and external factors, from significant population movements (replacement of the original by new dwellers) to increased tourism demand. All this has inevitably led to transformations of culture and population structure. However, the island is unique in many aspects, which are continuously a subject of different preservation measures. This article includes population data analysis, field survey assessment and a literature research in order to evaluate the actual sustainability of tourism.

Tjaša Rahne

Sources for the case: Green Island, Great Barrier Reef

Tuesday, October 28th, 2014

While working on the case Managing Tourism on Green Island, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: : Conservation, Commerce and Compromises by Heather Zeppel a varoius amount of possible research questions emerged.

My personal assigment will be based on the following research question:

How do the divers and marine recreational activities impact the marine eco-system? What can be done to improve the interrelationship of the two of them?

Considering the research question under consideration the following academic references can be used for the assignment:

Carlsen, J., & Butler, R. (2011). Island tourism, sustainable perspectives. Wallingford, Oxfordshire [England: CABI.

This book focuses on sustainable tourism cases on Islands and suggests perspectives on how to deal with tourists and touristic activities in those areas. It provides academic research cases on many Islands all around the world. The main emphasis are put on ecological, socio-cultural and economic aspects.

Davis, D., & Tisdell, C. (1995, January 30). Recreational scuba-diving and carrying capacity in marine protected area. Ocean & Coastal Management.

This article emphasises the impacts of recreational scuba diving in marine protected areas and talks about the growing number of marine-based tourism in protected areas. The focus lies on the relationship of scuba diving and the marine protected areas and the different values that attract people to the dive sites. Furthermore it states the need to implement suitable management strategies in order to use the marine ressources in a sustainable way.

Barker, N., & Roberts, C. (2004, March 25). Scuba diver behaviour and the management of diving impacts on coral reefs. Biological Conservation.

The article describes the observation of scuba divers in St.Lucia in the eastern Caribbean Sea and their interaction with the coral reef and other marine organisms. The research observes different types of divers: usual divers without any additional equipment, divers with cameras and dive leaders.

Hodgson, G. (1999, May 5). A Global Assessment of Human effects on Coral Reefs. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 345-355.

The article talks about a special a global survey protocol called Reef Check, which was introduced to investigate the state of over 300 coral reefs all over the world. The survey has been conducted by volunteer recreational divers and showed the impacts of marine based activities like scuba diving or fishing and other human activities on the coral reefs.

Harriott, V., Davis, D., & Banks, S. (1997, May ). Recreational Diving and Its Impact in Marine Protected Areas in Eastern Australia. Ambio, 173-179.

The article under consideration focuses on the impacts of recreational scuba divers on marine protected areas in Eastern Australia. It states that areas with special values are more likely to be given a protected area status but therefore are also more attractive to scuba divers. Furthermore it talks about the growing diving industry compared to other factors which also harm the reef, like mining, fishing or construction of tourism related facilities.

by Anna-Maria Innocenti

Etivity 4- Scandic Hotel

Tuesday, October 28th, 2014

All of the selected materials offer some information about Scandic and its performance regarding sustainability. The literature has been found on either Scandics website or by searching the database of the university’s database, in order to ensure the quality and validity of the resources.

The topic I am interested in is the practice of Waste Management programs in the hotel industry. Hotels generate large numbers of waste and hence it is essential to work towards reducing the waste in order to protect the environment and at the same time create benefits for the company.

Besides the fact of how the hotel is working on its waste management program and how they are involving and encouraging employees to contribute to the program, I am also interested in how guests are being involved in this process.

Therefore I came up with the following research question:

Research Question:

Which steps is Scandic taking in order to reduce its waste production and how are employees involved and guests encouraged to contribute to this strategy?



  • Jones, P., Hillier, D. and Comfort, D. (2013). Sustainability in the global hotel industry. Int J Contemp Hospitality Mngt, [online] 26(1), pp.5-17. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ijchm-10-2012-0180

This article offers a short overview of a comparison of sustainable understanding at different leading hotel chains. The article gives a short idea of what different hotels are practicing concerning sustainability.


  • Scandic: Better World, (2008). Scandic campaign. [online] Available at: http://www.scandic-campaign.com/betterworld/downloads/sc_textversion_en.pdf.

This webpage offers a great overview of what Scandic has achieved since 1993 and how the sustainability strategy has developed. It offers many examples regarding the different topics concerning sustainability.


  • Svanen.se, (n.d.). Criteria – Svanen.se. [online] Available at: http://www.svanen.se/en/Portaler/H—R—C/Criteria/.

In 1999, a Scandic Hotel was labeled for the first time with the Swan certificate.
The Swan label is one of the world’s toughest eco labels and places great demands on the entire operation of a hotel.
This website offers information regarding the Swan label and which requirements hotels need to fulfill in order to get the label.


  • Sustainability in the Hospitality Industry. (2009). 1st ed. [ebook] Sloan, P., Legrand, W. and  Chen, J. pp.27-37. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com.proxy1-bib.sdu.dk:2048/science/article/pii/B978075067968800003X

This book offers many chapters regarding topics of sustainability in the Hospitality Industry. This particular chapter is about Waste Management. The different forms of waste are being explained, as well as how the waste can be reduced.


  • Goodman, A. (2000). Implementing sustainability in service operations at Scandic hotels. Interfaces, [online] 30(3), pp.202–214. Available at: http://www.jstor.org.proxy1-bib.sdu.dk:2048/stable/10.2307/25062608?origin=api&.

This article particularly addresses sustainability at Scandic Hotels. Moreover it gives background information about Scandic and the crisis it was in. Furthermore it is explained how Scandic came up with the new strategy and which steps the hotel had to take to become successful. All in all it offers a great overview of how Scandic started to  implement sustainability in its operations and in which way that affected the development of the business.

Gastronomic tourism and Gokceada, research question and literatures

Tuesday, October 28th, 2014

Research question:

How being a gastronomic destination can help a sustainable development of the destnation itself? How the partecipation in the cittàslow network can help Gokceada to move towards a more sustainable development?


CittàSlow: Producing Slowness against the Fast Life, Mara Miele, Space and Polity, Vol. 12, No. 1, 135–156, 2008.

The article provides an overview of the philosophy, actions and goals of the Cittaslow movement, created as a response to the speed of life nowadays. The principles of the movement are applied in different ways in each destination that join the network in order to build a “personal” version of slowness, suitable for the peculiar environment of the city. The aim is to preserve the slowness where it already exists as well as to promote it in destination that did not experience this practice.

Culinary cuisine and regional development: from slow food to slow tourism?, Tourism review international, vol. 9, pp. 303 – 305, 2006.

The article illustrates the growing attention for culinary tourism and its central role in the tourist experience. Furthermore, tourism is recognized as a source for economic development, particularly for the rural areas. Culinary tourism is seen as a source of localization and differentiation of a destination as a response to the increased global competition. Moreover, in the article is asked if a shift from slow food to slow tourism is possible. Although, the concept of slow tourism needs to be defined. Indeed, if all the principles of slow food are applied, it would be require to travel locally as it is required to produce locally in the food industry.

Participation of the local community in the tourism development of Imbros (Gokceada), Tulay, Cengiz, Ferah Ozkok, Cigdem Kaptam Ayhan, African journal of agricultural research, vol. 6, 2001.

The article explains as a participatory approach allows the community to take advantage from tourism development, reducing its negative impacts on the community and on the environment. Particularly, the article is focused on Gokceada, the largest island in Turkey and its touristic potential is analysed and a possible planning for the development is proposed. In this plan all the resources of the island are taken into consideration: natural resources (beaches; bays; waterfalls); cultural resources (historic buildings – churches; historic villages; monasteries); events; windsurfer spots; agricultural resources – olive and wine.

Locals food and locals menus: the case of Gokceada, H. Ridvan Yurtseven, Ozan Kaya, Tourismos: an international journal of tourism, vol. 6, n. 2, 2011, pp. 263 – 275.

In this paper the motivations for the consumption of local food in a touristic destination from tourists are analysed. Five main motives are identified in the research: quality of taste; authentic experience; rural development; health concern; knowledge. Furthermore, related to the Turkish island Gokceada the percentage of local food and local dishes included in the menus is pointed out. The paper is based on the close existing relation between food, culture and tourism and it allows to point out the expectations of tourists from the destination (Gokceada).

Gastronomy: a phenomenon of cultural expressionism and an aesthetic for living, G. Barry O’Mahony, Joseph A. Hegarty, International journal of hospitality management 20, 2001.

The consumption of food has became more and more experiential in the past few years. In this paper is argued that the gastronomic sector is representative of an aesthetic of living and it is not merely aimed at satisfy physiological needs. Indeed, gastronomy constitutes currently the expression of ritual and status as well as the main expression of the tradition for a particular group.

Policy Making and Cinque Terre

Tuesday, October 28th, 2014

The more I read about the case of Cinque Terre, the more my understanding towards this particular area grows. What seemed at first like a perfectly working project on sustainability and saving the beauty of Cinque Terre, has now shown so many other facets – not all of them of pure delight.

In search of my research question I reminded myself of the first entry I wrote on innotours about Malta and that I wanted to learn more about how governments can be involved in sustainable tourism development.

Due to this I would like to work on

How can (local) governments contribute to a sustainable tourism development and what are the challenges? The case of Cinque Terre.

The municipalities and the regional governments are highly involved with the sustainable tourism project there. But not every incentive they give or every decision they make is welcomed by the locals. In the documentary Vendemmia, e.g., locals complained about not being able to sell their houses to foreign investors as it is prohibited by the authorities. The reason? “To maintain the local culture and heritage and keep it in their own hands.” When the park’s president Franco Bonanini turned out to be corrupt in 2011, not only him, but the whole system was in question.

The following literature gives an overview on the situation and date of Cinque Terre and explains more in regard of the sustainable tourism project:

De Naeyer, André (2005): From Smart History towards common European Heritage by a preservation model of CINQUE TERRE NATIONAL PARK – Italy. Joint International Project Handbook. PDF retrieved from:

Kah, Stefan (2007): Preserving the Man Made Environment: A Case Study of the Cinque Terre National Park, Italy. In: Mose, Ingo: Protected Areas and Regional Development in Europe: Towards a New Model for the 21st Century (p. 148-158). Asghate Publishing Company.

This paper is a great paper on the question of how local governments can involve in the sustainable development by direct and indirect involvement:

 Dorina, K., Engjellushe, Z., Klodiana, G. (2012): The Role of Local Government in Sustainable Development. Acta Unversitatis Danubius 8 (p. 139-155). PDF retrieved from: http://www.academia.edu/1232478/The_Role_of_Local_Government_in_Sustainable_Development

There are several guidelines from the World Tourism Organization to be found on the following website. Among others they tackle in these articles on how the different stakeholders should collaborate and giving an overview on policies and strategies.


Last, but not least, another important institution provides guidelines on policy making and sustainable tourism, namely the United Nation Environmental Program. It is a step by step toolkit. Especially the detailed part about the policy implications can be useful for answering the research question.

 UNEP (2005): Making tourism more sustainable. A guide for policymakers. PDF retrieved from: http://www.unep.fr/shared/publications/pdf/DTIx0592xPA-TourismPolicyEN.pdf




Literature Review

Tuesday, October 28th, 2014

This research proposes intra-stakeholder conflict, among mass day visitors (the tribe) and the individual resort guest, within the tourist stakeholder group. This research posits, mass day visitor interrupts resort guest immersion and deeper experience of the ecological attributes at Green Island.  This research is informed by the postmodern phenomenon regarding tourist typology (Cova, 1996), and their levels of experience (first gaze and second gaze concept) highlighted in (MacCannell , 2001). The methodological technique implemented in this research, proposed by (Kozinet, 2002) is “Netnography.

(Buhalis, 2000) provides a classification used to group Green Island destination into two typologies. The article also provides insights into tourist expectations of particular destination types and the characteristics of the destination that attend to those expectations.

(Mihalic, 2013) The article highlights the relative importance of environmental resources to specific destinations based on geographical characteristics.

(Cova, 1996): Provides insight into the postmodern phenomenon, classifies consumer behavior based on postmodern characteristics. The typology is used to conceptualize the tourist as a joint creator of meaning (with destination) through interactive and emotional experiences and not simply a consumer of products based on the transfer of meaning through (empty) images.

(MacCannell, 2001) dichotomizes the experience of tourists into the First and Second Gaze, providing a deeper and divergent understanding of tourist experiences.

(Kozinets 2002)  provides the methodological technique appropriate to capture tourist perception of experiences at a destination via online communities (a form of social media).  According to Kozinets (2002) “Netnography is faster, simpler and less expensive than traditional ethnography;” providing information on the symbolism, meanings, and consumption patterns of online consumer groups.


Buhalis, D. (2000). Marketing the Competitive Destination of the Future. Tourism Management, 97-116.

Cova, B. (1996, November- December). The Post Modern Explained To Managers: Implications For Marketing. Business Horizons, pp. 15-23.

Kozinets, R. V. (2002). The Field Behind the Screen: Using Netnography For Marketing Research in Online Communities. Journal of Marketing Research, 39, , 61-72.

MacCannell, D. (2001). Tourist Agency. Tourist Studies, 23-37.

Mihalic, T. (2013). Performance of Environmental Resources of a Tourist Destination: Concept and Application. Journal of Travel Research, 1-17.

Ritchie, B. J., & Crouch, G. I. (2000). The Competitive Destination: A Sustainability Perspective. Tourism Management, 1-7.

Uriely, N. (2006). The Tourist Experience: Conceptual Developments. Annals of Tourism Research, 199-21.


Sources for Case Study : The Maldives. (Violet, Sil, Christina and Suchi)

Monday, October 27th, 2014

Vargas, E. (comp).”Guide to Good Practices for Sustainable Tourism
in Marine-Coastal Ecosystems”. Diseño Editorial S.A. Retrieved from: http://www.rainforest-alliance.org/tourism/documents/marine_coasta_eng.pdf (23/10/2014)
This is a guide (aimed specially at tourism managers and developers) that could be used as a parameter in evaluating the current practices in Maldives, to observe if they are working towards promoting sustainable tourism development that benefits the coastal-marine areas.

World Travel and Tourism Council (2014).“The Economic Impact of Travel & Tourism 2014 – Maldives”. London, UK. Retrieved from: www.wttc.org (23/10/2014) : This document presents very up to date figures in order to assess and quantify the value of Travel & Tourism’s contribution to GDP and employment in the Maldives.

Osorio, Camilo Gomez; Fonseka, Daminda Eymard. (2013).“Maldives development update“. Washington, DC: World Bank Group. Retrieved from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2013/10/18612521/maldives-development-update (23/10/2014) : This document not only provides figures and statistics from the World Bank source, giving an economic outlook of the country, but also crosses the data with the political and social context. It also briefly analyses the shift to a new tourist group, the Chinese segment, and gives recommendations for the upcoming years.

“The Official Travel Guide of the Maldives” (Official Tourism internet site): http://www.visitmaldives.com/ :An official overview of the country, from a marketing and destination branding perspective. It gives information on Accommodation, Transport, History, Activities, etc en a concrete and tourist-friendly way.

The World Fish Center and Reef Base (2008). “Lessons learned and good practices in the management of coral reef marine protected areas”. Retrieved from: http://www.reefbase.org/gefll/pdf/lessonslearnedMPAbrief_English.pdf (23/10/2014) A document produced by an NGO on the basis of the analysis of more than 20 projects funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) related to coral reef conservation. The specialists have identified good practices to follow in the management of this areas. www.rainforest-alliance.org www.rainforest-alliance.org

Lück, M. (2002). Large-scale ecotourism – a contradiction in itself?. Current issues in tourism, 5(3-4), 361-370. The article defines the term Ecotourism and raises awareness for conservational project the German tour operator TUI and their airline carrier LTU realised until 2002. The ideas related to waste management and local engagement may be an inspiration how eco-friendly tourism could be developed on a large scale in natural based tourism destinations.

Republic of Maldives. Ministry of Tourism Arts & Culture, (2012). Fourth tourism master plan 2013-2020. Retrieved from website: http://tourism.gov.mv/publications/ : The fourth tourism master plan explains governmental policies and aims concerning the development of tourism in the Maldives from 2013 until 2020 and public conservational project to reduce environmental damage by tourism. The website of the Ministry of Tourism Arts & Culture provides a high range of tourism data related to yearly incoming tourist statistics.

Sathiendrakumar, R., & Tisdell, C. (1989). Tourism and the economic development of the maldives. Annals of Tourism Research, 16(2), 254-269.The publication gives an overview over the Maldives political and economic development in the area of tourism. It focuses on the type of tourism development and the multiplier effect on the local economy and infrastructure. It serves as a basis of background information for current issues in Maldivian tourism.

Zulfa, M., & Carlsen, J. (2011). Planning for sustainable island tourism development in the maldives. In R. Butler & J. Carlsen (Eds.), Ecotourism Series, Number 8: Island tourism: a sustainable perspectiveOxfordshire: CABI Publishing. The case study evaluates the achievement of Maldivian governmental policies especially the first to third tourism master plan. It proposes that hardly any ecological aims set in the plans have been achieved so far and further regulation and planning is required to make the economic prosperity by tourism last.

Brown, K., Turner, R. K., Hameed, H., & Bateman, I. (1997). Environmental carrying capacity and tourism development in the maldives and nepal. Environmental Conservation, 24(4), 316-325. The source evaluates the effects of mass tourism on openly accessible natural sites with a focus on resort tourism development in the Maldives. It analyses the degradation of the natural environment by tourism pressures under the aspects of waste disposal, water quality and tourist perception and governmental policy measures against over capacity.tourism.gov.mv tourism.gov.mv

“BEST PRACTICES IN GOVERNANCE AND ENFORCEMENT OF MARINE PROTECTED AREAS: AN OVERVIEW” Retrieved (22/10/2014) from:http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a1061e/a1061e00.htm :This paper is used as a background for a workshop held on Marine Protected Areas(MPA’s) in 2006. The goal was to formulate technical guidelines for MPA’s in order to establish networks of MPA’s as agreed on the World Summit of Sustainable Development. The Paper gives an overview of Best Practices of governance of MPA’s. The paper starts of with saying that MPA’s emerged as a tool for meeting certain conservation, fisheries management and social goals. It gives examples of different governance systems, and also mentions Tubbataha National Marine Park, which we took as a best practice example in our case. Furthermore, the article talks about coastal management and its effectiveness, emerging MPA networks, issues that affect MPA’s and gives recommendations for guidelines on management and planning to build sustainability.

“Wetland Tourism: Philippines – Tubbataha Reefs”Retrieved (22/10/2014) from: http://www.ramsar.org/tourism : This source is an article on Tubbataha National Marine Park retrieved from Ramsar. Ramsar is a convention on Wetlands of International Importance. It provides a framework for the wise use of wetlands and its recourses. The report basically talks about Tubbataha and how the park and its stakeholders are managed. The governance system of Tubbataha is of specific interest. There is a management board, which is a mixture of government and private stakeholders. The board has implemented specific actions to guarantee the conservation of the park.

“The Local Gaze: Social Inhibitors to Engagement in the Maldivian Tourism Industry” Retrieved (22/10/2014) from:http://www98.griffith.edu.au/dspace/handle/10072/41024 :This article talks about an important stakeholder in the conservation of MPA’s, namely the local inhabitants. The article is context specific; Maldivian society, geography, institutions and economy, but could be broadened to other Small Island Developing States(SID’s). The article talks about the conflicts between tourism and society, like effects on family life and problems on the workplace. The article ends with a number of recommendations for the government and tour operators.

“The economics of ecosystems and Biodiversity for water and Wetlands”Retrieved (22/10/2014) from: http://www.teebweb.org/publication/the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-water-and-wetlands/ :The article tries to capture the values of ecosystems to increase informed, efficient and fairer decision-making and to create policy momentum, business engagement, and investment in wise use of wetlands. The article talks about the importance of water and wetlands, improvement of measurement and assessment, integrated decision-making, and tries to identify gaps and inconsistencies in knowledge of economics of water and wetlands.

“Disappearing Destinations : Climate Change and the Future Challenges for Coastal Tourism” Retrieved (22/10/2014) from:http://site.ebrary.com.proxy1-bib.sdu.dk:2048/lib/sdub/detail.action?docID=10446301 : This is a book on tourism and the threats it poses on fragile environments like MPA’s.

“The consequences of tourism growth, predicted changes, and management and policy responses are reviewed. The book will explore tourism in the context of climate change and vulnerable environments, exploring the situation at local level and in a wider perspective using international case studies throughout and providing future recommendations. It will be an essential text for researchers, policymakers and students in tourism, ecotourism, environmental conservation, planning, coastal management and engineering, climate change and marine conservation.” ( Disappearing Destinations : Climate Change and the Future Challenges for Coastal Tourism)

AISHATH, S., RUHANEN, L., & BREAKEY, N. (2011). Griffith Research Online/ The Local Gaze: Social Inhibitors to Engagement in the Maldivian Tourism Industry . Opgeroepen op Ooctober 22, 2014, van griffith: http://www98.griffith.edu.au/dspace/handle/10072/41024

CHRISTIE, P., & WHITE, A. (2007). FAO Expert Workshop on Marine Protected Areas and Fisheries Management: Review of Issues and Considerations. ROME: UNITED NATIONS.

JONES, A., & PHILLIPS, M. (2010). In Disappearing Destinations : Climate Change and the Future Challenges for Coastal Tourism (p. 295). CABI Publishing.

RAMSAR. (2012, July). Wetland Tourism: Philippines – Tubbataha Reefs. Opgeroepen op October 22, 2014, van Ramsar: http://www.ramsar.org/tourism

TEEB. (2013, February). The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for Water and Wetlands-TEEB. Opgeroepen op October 22, 2014, van teebweb: http://www.teebweb.org/publication/the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-water-and-wetlands/

Becken, S., Hay, J., & Espiner, S. (2011). The Risk of Climate Change for Tourism in the Maldives. In J. Carlsen (Ed.), Island tourism: Sustainable perspectives (Vol. 8, pp. 71-84). Wallingford, Oxfordshire: CABI. This article focuses on assessment of the risks faced by Maldives in the coming years from climate change while providing a backdrop to the current situation and events in the country and internationally. The article also takes stakeholder perspectives into account. Policy implications in the future for resorts and other stakeholders within the Maldives have also been evaluated with a focus on the role of the government as a responsible leader.

Zulfa, M., & Carlsen, J. (2011). Planning for Sustainable Tourism Development in the Maldives. In J. Carlsen & R. Butler (Eds.), Island Tourism: Sustainable Perspectives (Vol. 8, pp. 215-227). Wallingford, Oxfordshire: CABI. This article focus on the conflicts between the practice of sustainable tourism development and for profit growth. It speaks about the development process and the limits that are faced in sustainable development and its control in the Maldives. It also gives a brief overview and planning of the tourism process in the Maldives. Keeping the legal system and tourism regulations in mind, it identifies key challenges in the future.

Carlsen, J., & Butler, R. (2011). Conclusions and Implications for Sustainable Island Tourism. In Island Tourism: Sustainable Perspectives (Vol. 8, pp. 228-238). Wallingford, Oxfordshire: CABI. This article focuses on issues and problems specific to island tourism. The main areas of focus are economic priority of tourism, restrictions on growth, response to environmental change, extent of local input and direction, political commitment to sustainable tourism principles. It touches upon many key areas needing further research as well.

Sathiendrakumar, R., & Tisdell, C. (1988). Marine development and socio-economic conflicts (internal and external) of the Maldives. Murdoch, W.A.: Murdoch University. This book gives an overview of how development has affected the socio-economic environment and natural habitat of marine beings. It evaluates different policies and analyses appropriate policies for fisheries, tourism, the economy keeping the political environment and the history of the island nation in mind.



Five useful sources on: Tourism Development, Climate Change and Marine Protected Areas

Monday, October 27th, 2014
These are five sources that can be applied for the case on: Conservation of Marine Protected Areas. Case: Maldives
The first source is an overview of some best practices in governance of MPA’s. The second source is a practical example of how a MPA could be governed. The third source deals with the conflict between tourism development and society, based on empirical research in the Maldives. The fourth source is a publication that tries to raise awareness of the importance of water and wetlands, and the benefits these have for economy and society. The final source is a book that deals with climate change and tourism growth and what effect these have on tourism destinations, specifically on threatened environments like MPA’s.
Below, you can find a short summary of the sources.

Retrieved (22/10/2014) from:

This paper is used as a background for a workshop held on Marine Protected Areas(MPA’s) in 2006. The goal was to formulate technical guidelines for MPA’s in order to establish networks of MPA’s as agreed on the World Summit of Sustainable Development.
The Paper gives an overview of Best Practices of governance of MPA’s. The paper starts of with saying that MPA’s emerged as a tool for meeting certain conservation, fisheries management and social goals. It gives examples of different governance systems, and also mentions Tubbataha National Marine Park, which we took as a best practice example in our case.
Furthermore, the article talks about coastal management and its effectiveness, emerging MPA networks, issues that affect MPA’s and gives recommendations for guidelines on management and planning to build sustainability.


  • “Wetland Tourism: Philippines – Tubbataha Reefs”

Retrieved (22/10/2014) from:

This source is an article on Tubbataha National Marine Park retrieved from Ramsar. Ramsar is a convention on Wetlands of International Importance. It provides a framework for the wise use of wetlands and its recourses.
The report basically talks about Tubbataha and how the park and its stakeholders are managed. The governance system of Tubbataha is of specific interest, because a management board is instituted, which is a mixture of government and private stakeholders. The board has implemented specific actions to guarantee the conservation of the park.


  • “The Local Gaze: Social Inhibitors to Engagement in the Maldivian Tourism Industry”

Retrieved (22/10/2014) from:

This article talks about an important stakeholder in the conservation of MPA’s, namely the local inhabitants. The article is context specific; Maldivian society, geography, institutions and economy, but could be broadened to other Small Island Developing States(SID’s). The article talks about the conflicts between tourism and society, like effects on family life and problems on the workplace. The article ends with a number of recommendations for the government and tour operators.


  • “The economics of ecosystems and Biodiversity for water and Wetlands”

Retrieved (22/10/2014) from:

The article tries to capture the values of ecosystems to increase informed, efficient and fairer decision-making and to create policy momentum, business engagement, and investment in wise use of wetlands. The article talks about the importance of water and wetlands, improvement of measurement and assessment, integrated decision-making, and tries to identify gaps and inconsistencies in knowledge of economics of water and wetlands.


  • “Disappearing Destinations : Climate Change and the Future Challenges for Coastal Tourism”

Retrieved (22/10/2014) from:

This is a book on tourism and the threats it poses on fragile environments like MPA’s. “The consequences of tourism growth, predicted changes, and management and policy responses are reviewed. The book will explore tourism in the context of climate change and vulnerable environments, exploring the situation at local level and in a wider perspective using international case studies throughout and providing future recommendations. It will be an essential text for researchers, policymakers and students in tourism, ecotourism, environmental conservation, planning, coastal management and engineering, climate change and marine conservation.” (Disappearing Destinations : Climate Change and the Future Challenges for Coastal Tourism)


AISHATH, S., RUHANEN, L., & BREAKEY, N. (2011). Griffith Research Online/ The Local Gaze: Social Inhibitors to Engagement in the Maldivian Tourism Industry . Opgeroepen op Ooctober 26, 2014, van griffith: http://www98.griffith.edu.au/dspace/handle/10072/41024

CHRISTIE, P., & WHITE, A. (2007). FAO Expert Workshop on Marine Protected Areas and Fisheries Management: Review of Issues and Considerations. ROME: UNITED NATIONS.

JONES, A., & PHILLIPS, M. (2010). In Disappearing Destinations : Climate Change and the Future Challenges for Coastal Tourism (p. 295). CABI Publishing.

RAMSAR. (2012, July). Wetland Tourism: Philippines – Tubbataha Reefs. Opgeroepen op October 26, 2014, van Ramsar: http://www.ramsar.org/tourism

TEEB. (2013, February). The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) for Water and Wetlands-TEEB. Opgeroepen op October 22, 2014, van teebweb: http://www.teebweb.org/publication/the-economics-of-ecosystems-and-biodiversity-teeb-for-water-and-wetlands/

Etivity 4 – Binh Phan (Brandy)

Sunday, October 26th, 2014

Tourism is a recognized as a highly energy-intensive industry and has recently been claimed as a major contributor to climate change through greenhouse gas emissions (Lu and Nepal, 2009). Studies show that transport is responsible for over 90% of tourism’s contribution to global climate change, with air travel being the dominator (Gossling, 2002). The roles of airlines in the problem-solving question of climate change and the importance of their commitments towards sustainable tourism development, therefore, cannot be denied.


Sustainable tourism development is defined as meeting the needs of present tourists and locals while preserving and fostering opportunities for the future (WTO, 1998, p.21). Sustainability deals with the problems tourism is causing to a destination in different aspects: economic, social-cultural and environmental. Goetz and Graham (2004) argued that environmental sustainability issues formed the biggest challenge facing the airlines industry.  Recently, airlines have developed policies and action plans concerning sustainability as well as CSR programmes as an answer to ethical concerns and as marketing tools towards a competitive advantage (Lynes & Dredge, 2006).

In terms of passengers, a recent study has shown that more than half of respondents believe air travel is responsible for climate change and may consider taking few flights to reduce impacts (Lorenzoni & Pidgeon, 2006). On the other hand, some research has revealed that tourists’ perception of sustainable tourism and awareness of carbon footprints are not significant (Hares, Dickinson & Wilkes, 2010).

Two different research directions:

–          To what extent does airlines’ commitment in sustainability and CSR programmes affect customer decision making process in choosing carriers and customer loyalty?

–          In what way can airlines participate in increasing the awareness of passengers on the concept and practice of sustainable/ responsible tourism?

Reference list:

On sustainable tourism and climate change:

Lu, J., & Nepal, S. K. (2009). Sustainable tourism research: an analysis of papers published in theJournal of Sustainable Tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 17(1), 5-16. doi: 10.1080/09669580802582480

Goetz, A. R., & Graham, B. (2004). Air transport globalization, liberalization and sustainability: post-2001 policy dynamics in the United States and Europe. Journal of Transport Geography, 12(4), 265-276. doi: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2004.08.007

Gössling, S. (2002). Global environmental consequences of tourism Global Environmental Change, 12(4), 283-302.

(WTO), W. T. O. (1998). Guide for local authorities on developing sustainable tourism. Madrid: World Tourism Organization

On airlines and CSR:

Lansing, P., & Vries, P. D. (2006). Sustainable Tourism: Ethical Alternative or Marketing Ploy? Journal of Business Ethics, 72(1), 77-85. doi: 10.1007/s10551-006-9157-7

Lynes, J. K., & Dredge, D. (2006). Going Green: Motivations for Environmental Commitment in the Airline Industry. A Case Study of Scandinavian Airlines. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14(2), 116-138. doi: 10.1080/09669580608669048


On customers’ awareness and perceptions of sustainable tourism:  

Barr, S., Shaw, G., Coles, T., & Prillwitz, J. (2010). ‘A holiday is a holiday’: practicing sustainability, home and away. Journal of Transport Geography, 18(3), 474-481. doi: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2009.08.007

Becken, S. (2007). Tourists’ Perception of International Air Travel’s Impact on the Global Climate and Potential Climate Change Policies. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15(4), 351-368. doi: 10.2167/jost710.0

Gössling, S., & Peeters, P. (2007). ‘It Does Not Harm the Environment!’ An Analysis of Industry Discourses on Tourism, Air Travel and the Environment. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15(4), 402-417. doi: 10.2167/jost672.0

Hares, A., Dickinson, J., & Wilkes, K. (2010). Climate change and the air travel decisions of UK tourists. Journal of Transport Geography, 18(3), 466-473. doi: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2009.06.018

Lorenzoni, I., & Pidgeon, N. F. (2006). Public views on climate change: European and USA perspectives. Climate Change, 77(73-95).

Miller, G., Rathouse, K., Scarles, C., Holmes, K., & Tribe, J. (2010). Public understanding of sustainable tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(3), 627-645. doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2009.12.002

Sigala, M. (2013). Customer Involvement in Sustainable Supply Chain Management: A Research Framework and Implications in Tourism. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 55(1), 76-88. doi: 10.1177/1938965513504030


Etivity 4 – academic resources

Saturday, October 25th, 2014

(Bohdanowicz & Martinac, 2003) The article is relevant for our case of Scandic, because it is one of the four European hotel chains surveyed in the study. It shows the attitudes of the professionals in the hotel chains, and which incentives could be used to further their sustainability work.

The research is limited to the 4 chains, and mainly their European hotels, so the results might not be applicable worldwide.

(Goodman, 2000) This article describes the practices used in the transition and development of Scandic hotel chain for the last 20 years. It defines the principles of the Swedish “omtanke”, employee inclusion, and the Natural Step’s TNS framework. It also shows how suppliers can be involved in the process of sustainable development.

Some of the practices shown in the article could be applied on other cases, and the definition of TNS is useful for other areas, as it is applicable for all industries. The way that Scandic “pushed” its suppliers to cooperate on the issue of sustainability could also be an example for other companies.

(Bohdanowicz & Martinac, 2007) The article shows what determines the energy and resource consumption of the hotels, and how differences in the resource use occurs depending on various circumstances.

As the study was done only on two hotel chains, and only in their European establishments, it might not be applicable worldwide. It was also based on the information given from the hotel chains directly, and not from an independent third-party source.  The article puts forward a number of factors influencing the energy and resource consumption of the hotels.

(Hobson & Essex, 2001) This article is based on a research undertaken in Britain and it shows the attitudes of various accommodation businesses towards the sustainable development. Both the benefits and the difficulties of SD perceived by the accommodation professionals are presented.  It also shows how public sector can contribute to the development.

The study was undertaken in Britain, so it might not be applicable elsewhere, although many of the big/international hotel chains might have similar views on the issue of sustainability, regardless of the placement of their hotels. Similarly, small accommodation providers might face similar obstacles, or have equal motivations in other countries as well. The example of the contribution of public sector in the SD could also be copied by other destinations and/or industries.

The article is based on a study undertaken in the late 1990’s, so the attitudes towards, barriers to, and benefits of sustainable development might have changed since.

(Kang, Stein, Heo, & Lee, 2012) This article mentions the Social Identity Theory by Tajfel and Turner (1986), the Means-end Theory by Gutman (1982), and, most importantly for the sustainability issue the NEP-New Ecological Paradigm scale originally developed by Dunlap and Van Liere (1978). The NEP is a way of measuring people’s attitudes towards ecological and environmental issues. The article presents a study of US hotel guests, regarding their willingness to pay extra for green initiatives at hotels. The results showed a positive relationship between the level of environmental concern and willingness to pay premium prices for sustainability.

Although high in quality, the results must be treated with caution, as the study was limited in scope and undertaken in USA, so the findings might not be compatible worldwide. It could, though, be expected that in other developed countries of similar culture (mostly Western Europe), similar results could be found.


Bohdanowicz, P., & Martinac, I. (2003). Attitudes towards sustainability in chain hotels – results of a European survey. THe CIB 2003 International Conference on Smart and Sustainable Built Environment (s. 1-10). Stockholm: Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology.

Bohdanowicz, P., & Martinac, I. (2007). Determinants and benchmarking of resource consumption in hotels – Case study of Hilton International and Scandic in Europe. Energy and Buildings (39), s. 82-95.

Goodman, A. (2000). Implementing Sustainability in Service Operations at Scandic Hotels. Interfaces , 30 (3), s. 202-214.

Hobson, K., & Essex, S. (October 2001). Sustainable Tourism: A view from accommodation businesses. The Service Industries Journal , 21 (4), s. 133-146.

Kang, K. H., Stein, L., Heo, C. Y., & Lee, S. (2012). Consumers’ willingness to pay for green initiatives of the hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management , 31, s. 564-572.


In search of… research question.

Saturday, October 25th, 2014

The Cinque Terre case is very interesting, and everytime I go deeper in the topic I discover new things and problems.  I’ve watched the documentary movie Vendemmia, which shows the every-day challenges Cinque Terre is facing on its way to sustainable tourism and preservation of environment and history. What struck me the most was the discovering that in October 2011 the disastrous flood almost destroyed cities of Vernazza and Monterosso. The losses were unimaginable – villages had no electricity, water, phone connections, the roads and railways were washed away. After this disaster, three American women connected in different ways with Vernazza decided to start a SaveVernazza Project to help Vernazza rebirth after the flood and to help “balancing a respect for the territory with that of sustainable tourism” [http://savevernazza.com/rebuildvernazza/].

I tried to go deep in this case, I really got interested by it and I decided to connect my research question with Cinque Terre.

Possible research question:

How can volunteer tourism contribute to the sustainable development of tourism in Cinque Terre? [perhaps: A case study of Save Vernazza Project]

Possible literature:

Wearing, S., Lyons, K., & Leigh Snead, S. (2010). Volunteer Tourism In: J.J. Liburd and D. Edwards (eds.) Understanding the Sustainable Development of Tourism. Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers: 188-204

Wearing, S. (2001). Volunteer Tourism: Experiences That Make A Difference. New York, NY: CABI Publishing

Wearing, S., &  Gard McGehee, N. (2013). Volunteer tourism: A review. Tourism Management 38 (2013) 120-130

Lyons, K.D. (2008). Journeys of Discovery in Volunteer  Tourism: International Case Study Perspectives, Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing

McIntosh, A.J. & Zahra, A. (2007). A Cultural Encounter through Volunteer Tourism: Towards the Ideals of Sustainable Tourism? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15(5)

The mentioned litetature will give me an overview of volunteer tourism definition, will help me in understanding different concepts of volunteering hidden under this name and find the connection with sustainable tourism development. I will also analyse the internet site of Save Vernazza Project and hopefully will get in touch with the founders (and maybe the participants) to get more insight informations about the project.

Please let me know what do you think about my research question!

Antonina Bogdanowicz


Articles and research

Thursday, October 23rd, 2014

This is the literature we want to use regarding CSR and Marriot. 

Research ideas paper – Deborah Huls

This are some questions I am interested in. In our group work we discussed the CSR in Marriot so I thought about this topic, but also about other topics.

 Research questions related to our group work Marriot:

Compare and contrast Marriott‘s CSR efforts with those of another prominent lodging or hospitality company.

  • In which extend does the CSR in Marriot pays of compared to other prominent hospitality companies?
  • How does CSR in Marriot effects the environment, the marketplace/revenue  and the guests? (general effectiveness in the marketplace)
    • Sub question to get the main answer: What is the visibility of the CSR in Marriott International? What is the level of actual consumer awareness of CSR initiatives? What is their main focus and to whom is targeted, which stakeholder group? What are the effects of CSR in Marriot?

Other questions (Inspired by other group work):

  • How is Marriot carrying out the labour of sustainability?
  • To what extend is Sustainability affecting the revenue of Marriot?

Reference list:

Casado-Diaz, A. B., Nicolau, J. L., Ruiz-Moreno, F., & Sellers, R. (2014). Industry-specific effect of CSR initiatives: hotels and airlines. Bingley: Emerald Insight.

Deale, C. S. (n.d.). Corporate Social Responsibility and the Sustainable Tourism Practices of Marriott International. Oxford: Good fellow publishes.

Lynn, C. (2009). Corporate Social Responsibility in the Hospitality Industry. Flagstaff: School of Hotel and Restaurant Management.

Marriot. (2014). 2014 Sustainability report. Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Pomering, A., & Dolnicar, S. (2008). Assessing the prerequisite of Successful CSR Implementation: Are consumers Aware of CSR Initiatives? Wollongong: Springer.

 Why are these articles relevant to the questions: The first article gives an description about specific affects of CSR on hotels and airlines, this can give information about the question. The second article is specified on Marriot, how they operate and deal with CSR. The third article is more a global overview about the CSR in the hospitality industry, this is nice to know so you get a bigger overview.  The fourth article is an report about Marriot from 2014 created by employees of Marriot. Reading this, you know all the effects of CSR and strategy they used. The last article is related to the consumer awareness what might be relevant to a sub question.

Not related to Marriot (Inspiration by other group work):

  • How can Netherlands/Amsterdam become a (more) sustainable tourism destination? How sustainable is the Netherland/Amsterdam at the moment and what else do they need to do in order to prevent environmental issues?

 Reference list:

(2012). Amsterdam RAI Sustainability report 2012. Amsterdam: Amsterdam Rai.

Amsterdam Sustainability Report 2005. (2006, September). Amsterdam, Noord-Holland, Nederland.

Govers, R., M. Go, F., & Kumar, K. (2009). Journal of Travel Research – Promoting Tourism Destination Image. Florida: SAGE.

Janssens, M., & Bechtoldt, M. P. (2010). The Sustainability of Cultural Diversity: Nations, Cities and Organizations. Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing. http://books.google.dk/books?id=X_b_Ey4pQnYC&pg=PA232&dq=sustainability+in+amsterdam&hl=nl&sa=X&ei=mjZBVJWfLMrMyAOg2oKQCQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=sustainability%20in%20amsterdam&f=false

Kern, F., & Smith, A. (2008). Restructuring energy systems for sustainability? Energy transition policy in the Netherlands. Brighton, Suxxes, UK.

Liburd, J. J., & Edwards, D. (2010). Understanding the sustainable development of tourism (Vol. Chapter 6). Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers Ltd.

Peeters, P., & Schouten, F. (2010). Journal of Sustainable Tourism: Reducing the Ecological Footprint of Inbound Tourism and Transport to Amsterdam. Breda: NHTV.

van Beugen, M. (2005). Sustainability of Dutch tour operations. Tilburg: Tilburg University.

Why are these articles relevant to the questions? The first report is about the environment from Amsterdam Rai and the sustainability. This can be related to the second question what Amsterdam is doing at the moment with sustainability. The second article is about Amsterdam itself. You need to know what they city does otherwise you can’t investigate how they can do it better.  The third article from Govers, R. Is about tourism destination image. How can a destination be better? This taken in mind might help with the main question. The fourth source is a book, it enlighten sustainability on a different way: The sustainability of cultural diversity. In Amsterdam there are a lot of different cultures. The fifth article is an global overview about energy systems in the Netherlands. It depends if I focus my research on Amsterdam or the Netherlands, otherwise I don’t need this article. The sixth book is related to the CSR in tourism. The journal of Peeters, P. is about inbound tourism and transport to Amsterdam, how can the ecological footprint be reduced? This might be interesting as well for the main question. Last but not least, this article gives an overall view about the Dutch tour operations related to Sustainability. Maybe I could find some more articles about tourism destination.


Research ideas paper – Iva Tcolova

During our group discussion we pinned several guiding questions to focus on. One of them considers the visibility of the CSR to the public. What are the main environmental management practices and how companies are using their web platform to communicate to the public is discussed in the Hsieh, Y.C. (2012) work.  Measuring the the level of social responsibility behaviour through an observation of CSR reporting on web pages, reports and CSR annual reports is the main focus of the Holcomb, J (2007) research.  A followed up question is the scope of information reported and its reliability. De Grosbois D., (2012) points out the significant differences between reporting CSR commitment to specific goals and reporting initiatives and the actual performance. Taking into account that every organization has economic obligations such as profit, success and economic performance, Jones P., Hillier D., Comfort D. search for the main drive behind the sustainable commitments. Why corporations consider CSR practices important? The building of a link between competitive advantage and CSR is the purpose of Porter’s journal.

 1.       De Grosbois, D. (2012). Corporate Social Responsibility reporting by the global hotel industry: Commitment Initiatives and performance. International journal of Hospitality Management, 31(3), pp. 896-905.

The paper focuses on evaluation of CSR reporting practices in the hospitality industry.  It discusses the scope of the information reported. The research highlights the significant differences between reporting CSR commitment to specific goals and reporting initiatives and the actual performance.

2.       Holcomb, J. L., Upchurch, R. S., & Okumus, F. (2007). Corporate social responsibility: what are top hotel companies reporting? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 19(6), pp. 461-475.

The purpose of the research is to measure the level of social responsibility behaviour taking into account the scope of CSR reporting through web pages, reports and CSR annual reports.

3.       Hsieh, Y.C. (2012). Hotel Companies environmental policies and practices. A content analysis of their web pages. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24(1), pp. 97-121.

The article describes the environmental management strategies and practices through a web page review and discusses how the companies are using their web platform to communicate to the public.

4.       Jones P., Hillier D., Comfort D. (2014). Sustainability in the global hotel industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 26 Iss 1 pp. 5 – 17.

How the hospitality industry communicates its CSR approach. The paper considers the main drive behind the sustainable commitments.

5.       Porter, M.E. & Kramer, M.R. (2006). The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard business review, 84 (12), 78-92.

Every organization has economic obligations such as profit, success and economic performance. However, the CSR practices have become an iinescapable priority for companies.


Research ideas paper – Mette Moegreen

I am currently thinking of looking in to if  Marriott Hotels are so focused on CSR, because they really care, or if it simply comes down to a good marketing strategy, and gaining more profit? As this is the way I am going towards for the exam paper, I have so far found these articles that could give me more insight to such a topic;

  • Nick Lin-Hi  & Karsten Müller (2013), The CSR bottom line: Preventing corporate social irresponsibility, Journal of Business Research Vol.66.

From the abstract: ”The article argues that the negligence of the issue of CSI constitutes a serious shortcoming of the current debate.

The study here elaborates on the relevance of avoiding badfor the perceived social responsibility of corporations

and provides a framework which captures the relationship between CSR (doing goodand avoiding bad),CSI, and perceived CSR (pCSR).”


  • Ajnesh Prasad & Ingo Holzinger (2013), Seeing through smoke and mirrors: A critical analysis of marketing CSR, Journal of Business Research Vol.66.

From the abstract: This study adopts a criticalmanagement studies perspective to appraise the phenomenon of marketing corporate social responsibility (CSR). Views emerging from critical management studies are particularly beneficial for a project of this scope due to their ability to render visible the hidden ideologies that are the corollary of corporate marketing of CSR initiatives.”


  • Emerald Insight, Strategic Direction, Vol. 30 Iss 4 pp. 24 – 27, The global hotel Industry’s approach to sustainability.

This short article, is questioning if business go into CSR because they are concerned, or beacause of their stakeholders.

  • Wen-Hsien Tsai, Jui-Ling Hsu, Chia-Hsin Chen, Wan-Rung Lin, Shu-Ping Chen (2013), An integrated approach for selecting corporate social responsibility programs and costs evaluation in the international tourist hotel, International Journal of Hospitality    Management Vol.29.

From the abstract: “The purpose of this paper is to present an integrated approach and scientific techniques for corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs selection decisions and costs evaluation in the hotel industry”.


  • Adam Lindgreen and Valérie Swaen, Corporate Social Responsibility, International Journal of Management Reviews (2010).

This article gives a good general overview of Corporate Social Responsibility.


Research paper ideas – Kathrine Binder

Sustainable Tourism Development – Academic literature concerning CSR and Marriott

The articles will be introduced based on two questions,

  1. What is the Article about?
  2. How can it be related to the case of CSR and Marriott?

1 Article: B. Casado-Díaz Ana L. Nicolau Juan Ruiz-Moreno Felipe Sellers Ricardo , (2014),”Industry-specific effect of CSR initiatives: hotels and airlines”, Kybernetes, Vol. 43 Iss 3/4 pp. 547 – 564

This article looks at the relationship between companies´ CSR activities and performance from an industry point of view. The findings show that when including the industry specific factors of the hotel industry, the hotel industry is preforming on an average behaviour of CSR.

This article could be used in the case of Marriott and CSR to establish something about Marriott and the industry, ex. That Marriott are doing better or worse that the overall hotel industry.

2 Article: Siyathorn Khunon & Kaewta Muangasame (2013), “The differences between Local and International Chain Hotels in CSR Management: Empirical findings from a study in Thailand”, Canadian Center of Science and Education, Vol. 9, No. 5, pp. 209-225  


This article is concerned with the differences and similarities between managing CSR in international hotels and local hotels. The conclusion is that there are differences between how international and local hotels should be managing their CSR efforts. Two new models of achieving CSR are introduced: the Outside-In (international) and the Inside-Out (Local).

This article could be used in relation to the case of Marriott and CSR as an argument of having an overall CSR strategy along with some local CSR strategies.

3 Book: Mara Manente, Valeria Minghetti and Erica Mingotto (2014), “Responsible tourism and CSR”, Springer International Publishing Switzerland


This book provides some overall definitions of CSR and Responsible tourism. It also introduces a study of the European Reporting System for Responsible Tourism and CSR. It states the differences and similarities of the different systems that are available in Europe.

This book and article could be used in the case of Marriott and CSR to first of all get the definitions in place and secondly, it could be used to state that when Marriott is operating in Europe, they should be a part of these non-profit networks, so they can get the label of “Responsible Tourism”.

4 Article: Dzingai Kennedy Nyahunzvi, (2013),”CSR reporting among Zimbabwe’s hotel groups: a content analysis”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 25 Iss 4 pp. 595 – 613

 This article is looking at the overall CSR level of the Zimbabwe´s hospitality sector. It stats that they lag behind in comparison with their competitors of the developed world. Their overall concerned is with the financial performance rather than with CSR.

This article could be used in the case of Marriott and CSR to first of all see the development of CSR, within the hotel groups, in a developing country like Zimbabwe. Then it could also be relevant to link Marriott´s CSR strategy of the developing countries to the overall level of CSR.

5 Article 5: Vimolboon Cherapanukorn & Kristen Focken (2014), “Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Sustainability in Asian Luxury Hotels: Policies, Practices and Standards”, Canadian Center of Science and Education, Vol. 10, No. 8, pp. 198-209

This article looks at the concept of CSR and how Asian luxury hotels are communicating about their CSR policies, practices and standards. The findings show that CSR is a blurry subject and it lacks an overall guidance in this industry. Most of them underline the importance of the environment and society.

This article could be used in the case of Marriott and CSR to first of all see how one of the biggest markets is familiar with CSR. Secondly, it can be used to look at the CSR initiatives of Marriott in relation to the overall CSR condition of Asia.


Research paper ideas – Marina Tcaturyan

1. Ramendra Singh Sharad Agarwal, (2013),”Does CSR orientation reflect stakeholder relationship marketing orientation? An empirical examination of Indian banks”, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 31 Iss 4 pp. 405 – 420.

This article is relevant for our research because it introduces interdependence of “age” of an organisation and its CSR commitment. Using an case of indian banks it states that managers need to identify and focus on areas in which CSR orientation can give them more strategic advantage in building relationship with its stakeholders and that it will help meeting the expectations of the stakeholder expectations successfully.

2. Klement Podnar Urša Golob, (2007),”CSR expectations: the focus of corporate marketing”, Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Vol. 12 Iss 4 pp. 326 – 340.

This article is relevant to our research for its is to investigate the link between individuals’ expectations of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and their readiness to support the socially responsible behaviour of companies in light of the expectational relationship a company has with its stakeholders, as defined in the corporate marketing model. It also suggests that ethical-philanthropic responsibilities seem to lead to a competitive advantage which is based on a desired customer response and reward. This is in line with the main focus of corporate marketing, which is the meeting of stakeholder and societal needs.

3. Yuan-Shuh Lii, Kuang-Wen Wu and May-Ching Ding, (2013), “Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management”, Vol. 20, iss. 1, pp. 15-28.

This article is relevant for our research bcause it focuses on the effect of the sustainable marketing of three types of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives – sponsorship, cause-related marketing, and philanthropy – on consumer evaluations with the moderating effect of psychological distance (social distance and spatial distance).

4. Schlegelmilch, Bodo B; Öberseder, Magdalena (2013), “CSR practices and consumer perceptions”, Journal of business research, Vol. 66, Num. 10.

This article is relevant for our research because it explores the corporate practises and consumer perceptions related to CSR. It generates a conceptualization of corporate practize and consumers’ perceptions of CSR. It offers a grounded theory of CSR domains that explains how corporations and consumers view CSR and for what corporations are held responsible.

5. Kang, Juhee, Kim, Ellen Eun Kyoo (2012), “The impact of prevention versus promotion hope on CSR activities”, International journal of hospitality management, Vol. 31, Iss. 1, pp. 43-51.

This article is relevant for our research because it introduces different types of CSR advertisment strategies and explains what types are more likely to interest consumers and why. It also relates types of hope (promotion and prevention) and impact of the CSR activities that trigger cconsumers’ attitudes and behaviours.



Corporate Social Responsibility and the Sustainable Tourism Practices of Marriott Int.

Wednesday, October 8th, 2014

The reason for choosing this particular case is due to our interest in the two main focus points of this article: Marriot and CSR.

1)      Marriott

We are all familiar with Marriott and its enormous share in the world market of the hospitality sector. What is impressing is that they started 80 years ago as a small family root beer stand in the US and now has become one of the world largest lodging firms with more than 3, 900 properties, 18 brands represented in more over 70 countries. The company has been through a big change during those years while staying loyal to its founding principles and core values: putting people first, pursuing excellence, embracing change, acting with integrity and serving our world.

2)      CSR

We believe that CSR has developed into a necessity in today’s society which companies cannot deliberately neglect. According to Marriott, they have upheld a commitment to responsible business, human rights, ethical and legal standards in all aspects of their business for more than 80 years. Their main CSR focus is set on Society and Environment including an excessive amount of diverse sub initiatives.

 The surprising element for our group was that Marriott has such a vast and integrated CSR program. After our increased knowledge of Marriott we found all their CSR initiatives confusing and complex, therefore leading to the following research questions:

 What is the visibility of the CSR in Marriott Int.? What is their main focus and to whom is targeted, which stakeholder group?

What is the level of actual consumer awareness of CSR initiatives?

Do consumers have interest in receiving more information on CSR activities, and to extent which they trust different sources of information regarding CSR initiatives?

Does CSR prove its general effectiveness in the marketplace?

Are CSR programs cynically perceived to be used as a corporate image tactic, rather than a genuine reflection of a firm’s values and ethical commitment?



Marriott 2013 Sustainability Report;

Journal of Business Ethics (2009) Alan Pomering, Sara Dolnicar: Assessing the Prerequisite of Successful CSR Implementation: Are Consumers Aware of CSR Initiatives?

Group members: Iva, Kathrine, Mette, Deborah and Marina


Sustainability as a corporate strategy: A case study of Scandic Hotels.

Monday, October 6th, 2014


Scandic Hotels is one of the biggest hotel chains in the Nordic Countries. With headquarters in Stockholm, Sweden it is composed by a total of 230 hotels, scattered in 8 countries (Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Germany, The Netherlands, Belgium and Poland) and with a total of 13.000 team members. 

Scandic was founded in 1963 as Esso Motor Hotels, which was based on the concept of hotels on major travel routes and was the first of its kind in Sweden. Between 1990 and 1992, the company suffered huge losses of around US $50 million, and it was on the verge of bankruptcy. To save the company, the investors hired a new CEO, Roland Nilsson, who changed completely the way the hotel operated until now.

He realised that the concern for the nature and the environment were starting to be present in people’s mind, and so he decided to adapt the company into this trend.

Being inspired by Ikea’s success on sustainability implemented by Natural Steps, a non-profit environmental education organization working to build an ecologically and economically sustainable society, he followed the same principles to apply for his hotel. After six months of establishing this culture, the company has managed to implement the theory to the practice.

Nowadays, the hotel is considered a leader in sustainability and CSR, with many awards that make it a pioneer of this issue in the lodging industry.

In the light of this background we have chosen our research question:

To what extend has Sustainability become a strategy for the corporation?

And to answer this research question we have divided it in 3 sub-questions:

–          How is Scandic Hotels carrying out the labour of sustainability?

–          Is really sustainability an issue that travellers have in mind while choosing a hotel?

–          To what extend is Sustainability affecting the revenue of Scandic Hotels?


Group Members:

Ana Wang Huang / Barbora Gulisova / Franziska Stein / Julita Polkaite / Si Wang Huang



  • Pegram, Neil. (2008). The Natural Step: Case Study for Scandic Hotels. Retrieved from: http://www.naturalstep.org/sites/all/files/Scandic%20Hotels%20Case%20Study_Dec%202008.pdf
  • Heesbeen, Lars. (2014). Corporate Social Responsibility: A case study for Scandic Hotels. Retrieved from: http://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/77723/Thesis%20Lars%20Heesbeen.pdf?sequence=1
  • Cuenllas, Arturo. (2014). Scandic Hotels, a case study in sustainability. Retrieved from: http://www.hospitalitynet.org/news/4064048.html
  • Scandic is the first hotel chain in Europe to be awarded a Gold medal by the Global Business Travel Association (GBTA). (2013, July 4). Retrieved from: http://www.visitdenmark.com/denmark/scandic-receives-gold-medal-its-environmental-work
  • http://www.scandichotels.com/settings/Side-foot/About-us-Container/About-Scandic/
  • http://www.scandichotels.com/settings/Side-foot/About-us-Container/About-Scandic/History/
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scandic_Hotels

Case selection: Namibia’s Communal Conservancy Tourism Sector

Friday, October 3rd, 2014

(Very) Brief Case Description:

Namibia(South-western Africa) is a case recognizing how tourism can be used as a mean to create welfare for the local people, by using its natural resources and wildlife in a sustainable way to benefit all Namibians. Beyond sustainable environmental concerns, the case also provide a strong focus on the interplay between involved stakeholders(especially public, private and locals), in the development of tourism in Namibia.

The governments has since 1995 involved the Namibians in planning and developing their own conservancies. The benefits generated from tourism end equally or solely in their favour, and not at investors, as prior to the initiatives. Conservancies now(2004) cover 41,8% of communal land in Namibia, create more than 45,8 million dollar on an annual basis, making tourism the fourth largest income generator for Namibia, create 10.000 jobs, and benefits more than 234.300 people*.

Even though it is indeed a success story of rural tourism development for a developing country in many ways, there are still growing challenges i.e. conflicting perceptions of the joint ventures between locals and investors and belonging benefit sharing ; lack of proper skills for managing tourism facilities, leaving the majority of locals without influence and not encouraged to entrepreneurship ; harmful community dynamics – all which have resulted in trouble attracting new investors and lack of capital to perform proper marketing.

Initial Research Questions for Inquiry:

No matter if it comes to lack of capital and investment in Namibia, creation of high quality experiences for visitors or maintaining the crucial environment – it all seems hindered by the fact that the interplay between local communities and other involved stakeholders is not raising mutual respect, trust and peace, therefore it could be interesting to look into:

  • How to align the different needs and expectations between the local community and involved stakeholders (government, NGOs, private business investors, tourists’ etc.) in bridging tourism planning and development to create a shared tourism strategy for Namibia?
  • What is currently the locals’ perception of tourism?
  • What are their incentives to acquire a more participatory approach to planning and development of tourism?
  • How to create some local governance or control system, that will ensure sustainable tourism development(i.e. equal benefit sharing ; equity among generations) for the community?
  • How to educate and engage locals in different aspects of sustainable tourism that encourages entrepreneurship and responsibility, and removes the strong dependency on funds and investors?

 *Benckendorff, P. and Lund-Durlacher, D. (2013): International Cases in Sustainable Travel & Tourism, Goodfellow Publishers Ltd, page 154.

Etivity 3 – Sustainable gastronomic tourism in Gokceada, Turkey

Thursday, October 2nd, 2014

Group members: Matilde Guido, Xiaojiao Yang (Joy), Tjasa Rahne, Vladimira Sajbanova, Maria Kavazidou.

Chosen Case Study: sustainable gastronomic tourism in Gokceada, Turkey.


Gokceada is the largest island of Turkey and it is a rural district. The island has a great touristic potential both for its natural resources and for the effort of managing them in best way possible. Indeed, the island was able to merge its two main resources, tourism and agriculture, in order to build a competitive advantage as a tourist destination.

Gokceada has developed, in the last few years, organic production for two main reasons: to support the local agricultural industry and to develop a strategy of differentiation, enhancing the destination attractiveness. Particularly, it has gained certificate of organic production for the three main crops of the island: olives; grapes; honey. The cost of these certificate were shared among the several producers of the island for each crop in order to reduce cost per unit. The use of local and authentic food along the development of a valorization of its production is contributing to support agricultural activity and to enhance the economic situation, thanks to the increased destination attractiveness and the rise of price per units of the agricultural production. At the same time, the development of organic production is contributing to the development of the island as a sustainable gastronomic destination.

Moreover, the attention demonstrated from the rural district of Gokceada for sustainability was pointed out through the membership of Gokceada into the association CittàSlow. CittàSlow, which means slow city, is an international network of towns that meet some particular requirements and it is part of the international organization Slow Food. As a member of the network the town agrees to work toward some goals in order to increase the life conditions of its citizens and its tourists. Furthermore, the overall goals meet sustainability requirements through the request of maintaining the developing the characteristics of the territory.


Proposal of research questions:

  1. To what extent is the local community involved and supporting the process of creating a gastronomic destination? Does the destination image reflect the authentic identity of the local population?

  2. Has the participation in CittàSlow network increased the tourism in the destination? Which are the impacts for the local population?

  3. How can Gokceada fully exploit its resources in order to become a gastronomic tourism destination? To what extent the gastronomic tourism industry can grow and still be sustainable? How can the sustainable growth be managed without damaging the local culture?

To fly or not to fly: the question on sustainability

Wednesday, October 1st, 2014



The low cost carriers fly to less famous/obscure destination creating boosts and awareness among the passengers. From an economic point of view this is positive, but at the same time the sudden boost can affect the environment negatively considering the fact that not all destinations have the capacity for tourism-related activities.


Questions which must be raised are: The focus of tourism sustainability versus economy from the carrier’s side, the sustainability of the destination and the overall development in the affected areas during the boost and considerations during decline.

How are the destination lifetime affected?

Source figure 1: Destination lifetime (Giaoutz & Nijkamp, 2006)


The 4 questions of destination sustainability:

We then ask ourselves 4 questions (UNWTO, 2007):

1.            How will this decision affect visitors?

2.            What are the implications for the industry?

3.            How does this affect the community?

4.            What will be the impact on the destination’s environment and/or culture?


From the tourists’ point of view, Cohen, Higham and Cavaliere (2011) indicated that visitors started to consider frequent air travel trend caused by low cost carriers could be a serious issue regarding CO2 emission and climate change in the long run. As passengers in general are becoming more environment-conscious, we are wondering if the low cost airlines are developing more Corporate Social Responsibility programmes in order to gain a competitive advantage? To what extent will these programmes positively affect the brand image of these airlines in the mind of tourists and their decision-making process?


A consideration in this case study will/could also be on the consumers themselves. Though the LCC might take responsibility, the environmentally focused tourists might in the end have erratic consumer behaviour and purchase from price, quality and convenience. In the end this might result in LCC claiming responsibility but not going through with it – a mirage (Caruana et al. 2014).  As such, the tourism consumer behaviour must be a factor. As result, we would like to explore more about tourists’ relation to LCC and their perspective toward air travel.


Cohen S.A., Higham, J.E.S. and Cavaliere, C.T. (2011) Binge flying. Behavioural addiction and Climate Change. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 38(3), 1070–1089.


Caruana, R., Gloser, S., Crane A., and McCabe, S. (2014) Tourists’ accounts of responsible tourism. Annals of Tourism Research Vol. 46: 115–129.


Giaoutz & Nijkamp, M. &. (2006). Tourism and Regional Development, New pathways. Aldershot: Ashgate.


UNWTO. (2007). A practical guide to tourist destination management. Madrid: UNWTO


Binh Phan (Brandy), Nuntanut Krissanasuwan, Sanne Jean Tams Johansen. Yin Chun Jeffrey Wong, Yi Ling Chen Yining,

Etivity 3 The Cinque Terre Sustainability Project

Tuesday, September 30th, 2014

The Cinque Terre National Park, located in the Northern Italian regions of Liguria and La Spezia is the country’s smallest National Park with only 4226 acres and at the same time its most densely populated with 5000 residents in five villages. The National Park was established in 1999 and received the status of UNESCO World Heritage.

The unique contribution to Mankind’s World heritage is its natural environment that has been profoundly altered by man activity. Once covered by forest, men have dissected over centuries the steep slopes of the hills to obtain strips of arable land. These terraces are used for growing wine, lemons and olives in heights up to 450-500 metres above sea level.

Due to inefficient methods and the nearly impossible use of modern equipment to grow crop in this landscape it has been abandoned during the times of Industrial Revolution. This led to a reduction of cultivated land to 150 hectars. The lack of repairing and caretaking risks landslides and in parts a free-thriving nature.

In the 1990s, the area experienced a touristic boom. In August 1999 an estimated number of 3,350,000 visitors came to Cinque Terre and its five villages Monterosso, Vernazza, Corniglia, Manarola and Riomaggiore. The tourism centers mainly on hiking and experiencing this unique landscape and not the typical beach holidays as in other regions of Italy. Few roads, only one train connection and a ferry make it difficult to access the areas for such a mass of people. The number of accommodations does not meet the demand either.

The change in economy with its consequences on nature and the tourist overflow leading to certain disadvantages for the nature and the local communities demanded for people taking responsibility and action.

In a project called Smart History project, an international team of different European universities has come up with the following research questions which summarize the main issues of Cinque Terre:

How can the authenticity and the integrity of the built heritage and the cultural landscape of the Cinque Terre be preserved in a changing environment?

How can the local declining industry of the wine and olive making be revitalized to sustain the preservation of the cultural values of the Cinque Terre N.P. as the World Heritage and sustaining their growth?

How can tourism benefit the inhabitants of 5 Terre while preserving the cultural heritage and sustaining their economic growth?

How can communication technology contribute to the education and enjoyment of the Cinque Terre visitors?

Nowadays, local, governmental and international initiatives are contributing to the preservation of this cultural landscape within the Cinque Terre Sustainability Project. What seems as a quite well functioning project at first glance, needs further research on the details that are not working in favour of its goal of sustainable development.

Therefore the following research question have been elaborated:
1) In which ways did the Cinque Terre Sustainability Project contribute to the sustainable development and how can it be improved?

2) What can be gained from the experiences with the Cinque Terre initiatives and how can it be applied to other protected areas?



De Naeyer, André (2005): From Smart History towards common European Heritage by a preservation model of CINQUE TERRE NATIONAL PARK – Italy. Joint International Project Handbook. PDF retrieved from:


Kah, Stefan (2007): Preserving the Man Made Environment: A Case Study of the Cinque Terre National Park, Italy. In: Mose, Ingo: Protected Areas and Regional Development in Europe: Towards a New Model for the 21st Century (p. 148-158). Asghate Publishing Company.


by Caroline Lang, Antonina Bogdanowicz, Lining Wang, Andrea Schmelz


London 2012 Olympic Games: All Fun and Games?

Monday, September 29th, 2014

The Olympic Games are the world’s largest and most prestigious sporting event, divided into Summer and Winter Games. Over 200 nations, sending over 10,000 athletes, participate in the competitions held every 4 years, with Summer and Winter Games alternating one another every 2 years.

Therefore, it is not surprising that thousands of tourists decide to travel all the way to the designated hosting city to attend such a mega event. The city needs to be able to host both visitors and athletes, which might require additional infrastructure and accommodation facilities. Further, the city will need to construct Olympic venues to host the various sport competitions.

From the city’s point of view, it is extremely challenging to organize sustainably such an enormous event. Sustainability can include many different aspects:

  • Every new building can be designed more environmentally friendly;
  • the flux of tourists can be handled with the least waste of resources;
  • the occasion to implement social sustainable thinking into the planning in order to improve the future life quality of the local community.

London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world. The city’s diverse tourist offerings include 4 UNESCO World Heritage Sites as well as numerous other internationally recognized landmarks. Being a global financial hub, London not only attracts leisure travellers but MICE and business travellers alike. London was the first city to host the modern Summer Olympic Games for the third time in 2012.

London’s opportunity to host the Olympic Games helped the English tourism industry, also due to the fact that in the same year London was the world’s most visited city receiving almost 17 million international visitors (MasterCard, 2012). Some of the goals of the Olympic Games were (i) to increase the number of foreign visitors, (ii) to encourage the residents to travel within the borders, (iii) to promote tourism and (iv) to improve all facilities by creating a “tourism legacy” (Richards & Wilkes, 2014).

After in-depth benefits analysis UK’s main objective was to focus on wealth creation and jobs.  Therefore, London’s target was to increase their value of tourism by 5% per year that would result in £50bilion expenditure and 225,000 jobs created. Organizations such as VisitEngland and VisitLondon worked together to highlight London’s uniqueness and improve their reputation at home and abroad, before and during the Olympic Games in 2012 (Richards & Wilkes, 2014).

Research questions:

  1. Taking as an example the 2012 London Olympic Games, what can be drawn from that experience for future mega events?
  2. What economic, environmental and social impacts did the 2012 London Olympics Games have on the city?
  3. Is it possible to conceive and realize such a big event in a sustainable way?



MasterCard. (2012). 2012 Global Destination Cities Index. PDF retrieved from http://newsroom.mastercard.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/MasterCard_Global_ Destination_Cities_Index_2012.pdf

Richards, S. & Wilkes, K. (2014). Tourism in England: London 2012 Olympic Games and Beyong. In Costa, Panyik & Buhalis European Tourism Planning and Organisation Systems (pp. 28-43). Bristol: Channel View Publications.


Ioana Varodi, Stefan Büttner, Valeria Guttilla, David Hornstein and Sandra Castañer

Etivity 3 : Northern Cyprus – Bafra, Karpaz region

Monday, September 29th, 2014

The aim of this case study is to find out and analyze the perceptions of tourism experts on the environmental impacts of the accommodation in the city of Bafra, region of Karpaz.

The economical development of Northern Cyprus benefited from the tourism sector as its leading economical sector. As in most of the destinations where tourism plays a big role in the society and economy, North Cyprus has been dealing with some negative effects due to this. The question to be asked, states the following: Is it possible to keep on developing tourism without negative influences on the environment?

The government of Turkey has pledged to establish a 300M dollar investment for 6 high quality Hotels in Bafra. This investment will have some impact, something tourism experts are already perceiving and covering.

The study focuses on the sustainable tourism development options by discussing environmental policy instruments that will be based on the findings of the research questions.

The academic case study is a research on the hotels being built and their environmental impact on the town of Bafra.  The economic contribution of developments in Bafra would be the creation of jobs for the local community and development of small and medium companies, but this is not the aspect of sustainability this case focuses on. Possible solutions of this impact are not focused on historical and cultural aspects of the local society either, because of the findings of the case study.

The people interviewed should have also been external scientists and environmentalists, not just the stakeholders who might have a subjective view on the issue of concern. There should have been a bigger sample of people interviewed and therefore the results would be more objective and accurate.

As the whole Northern Cyprus has five 5-star Hotels and Bafra will have additional 3, it is crucial to establish proper environmental policies. The main approach will be focused on natural and human environmental protection and natural resources management.


  • How to plan proper policies in STD? The case of Bafra.
  • What environmental factors to consider in tourism planning of undeveloped small islands?
  • How can policies be implemented in the hotel industry in order to meet the environmental requirements?
1. Mehmet Altinay Kashif Hussain, (2005),”Sustainable tourism development: a case study of North Cyprus”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 17 Iss 3 pp. 272 – 280
2. John Sadler, (2004), Chapter 7 – Sustainable Tourism Planning in Northern Cyprus – of “Coastal Mass Tourism: Diversification and Sustainable Development in Southern Europe”

Ernest Samsonchyk, Gonzalo Adell, Miguel Angel Lozano and Viktor Husag

Etivity 3 – Topic: Green Island, Great Barrier Reef

Thursday, September 25th, 2014

Topic: Green Island, Great Barrier Reef

The case on which our research is based is Managing Tourism on Green Island, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: Conservation, Commerce and Compromises by Heather Zeppel.

In the following abstract the triple bottom line approach will be used to describe the environmental, social, cultural and economical context of Green Island.

From an environmental point of view, Green Island, a small island, characterized as an ecologically diverse and fragile marine eco-system as part of the GBR, exhibits characteristic of both “a unique and exclusive, seaside destination” (Buhalis, 2000). A small sandy island situated on top of a coral foundation, boasts 134 species of flora, 62 species of birds and is the only coral cay in the Great Barrier Reef that has a rainforest. Described as one of the most eco-sensitive developments in the world ; the landscape of Green Island Resort offers 6000 native plants belonging to 60 species, providing a habitat for birds and recreation for visitors. The over 209 species of hard and soft corals at Green Island hosts a diversity of, tropical fishes, turtles, giant clams, sting rays and reef sharks. A circumference of 1.6 Km allows visitors to view coastal plants, sandy beaches and coral flats in about 45 minutes (Zeppel, 2011).

The socio-cultural aspect is further explained. Historically, the island played a significant role in the socio-cultural practices of the Aboriginal population, more specifically in the context of spiritual ceremonies, as well as fishing and hunting. Currently, Green Island hosts 385,211 visitors a year; i.e. between 1200-1500 visits daily. Yet a social carrying capacity study on Green Island recommended a daily maximum of 1200-1345 visitors (Beaumont 1997, in Zeppel, 2011). 95% of visitations constitute the day-trip tourists whereas the remaining 5% are the Green Island Resort guests and the Aboriginal people. The visitor profile at Green Island suggests a dichotomy of 95% ‘day trip visitors’ and 5 % ‘resort guests’, originating from Asia, Europe, USA and Australia respectively (Zeppel, 2011).

Economic activities and interests on the Cay is represented by, Green Island and Reef Advisory Committee, Queensland Park and Wildlife Services, Tour Operators and the Green Island Resort. Tourist facilities on the Coral Cay, such as accommodations, restaurants, cafes, bars, swimming pools, information centers and boutiques are operated by the Green Island Resort. The five star resort can accommodate 90 ‘resort guests’ and other ‘day visitors’.  The revenue from recreational levy, AUS$1.80, imposed on each tourist, generates an annual income of AUS$600,000 and is the responsibility of both the GIRAC and QPWS. Tour operators’ facilitates the movement of visitors from origin markets to and around the destination. Fines are imposed on an individual visitor level, an organization level (Green Island Resort) if there is a breach of environmental compliance, and reef operators for the breach of permit conditions.

The stakeholders identified referring to the case:

Some of the possible conflicts for our research case could emerge from the stakeholders’ interdependences and interactions:

Issues between

  • The day-trip visitors and the resort guests
  • The visitors and the Aboriginal people
  • The different local and regional government institutions
  • The private leaseholders and the marine eco-system and flora and fauna
  • The tour operators and the marine eco-system and flora and fauna
  • The day tourists and resort tourist and the marine eco-system and flora and fauna
  • The turtle and the Aboriginal people
  • Governmental institutions and tour operators

Based on the abovementioned description and stakeholder conflicts, the following ideas for research questions have emerged:

      1. How do the divergent values of the day-trip visitors and the resort guests influence their perception of sustainability on Green Island?
      2. How does the restriction policy on visitors influence the impact on the marine system and flora and fauna on the island?
      3. How do the divers and marine recreational activities impact the marine eco-system?
      4. How do the hunting policies influence the cultural rights of the Aboriginal people and the tourist perception of sustainability and to what extent should it be accepted?
      5. How can a balance between the different interests of the regional and local government institutions be achieved?

GI (Green Island) team: Anna-Maria Innocenti, Statia Williams, Bojana Bozhinovska, Massimo Bonmassari, and Zhenrui Yang / Hazel

Etivity III Case Study Summary The Maldives

Sunday, September 21st, 2014

Group Members: Suchi Smita Mahato, Violeta Meotto, Sil Van de Velde, Christina Bispink

“The government of the Maldives held a cabinet meeting underwater in 2009 to highlight the threat of global warming to the low-lying Indian Ocean nation.” 

 Maldives is an island nation consisting of 26 atolls, native to a very diverse and delicate marine ecosystem. It is known especially for its colorful coral reefs which inhabits about 1100 species of fish, 5 species of sea turtles, 21 species of whales and dolphins, 187 species of corals, 400 species of molluscs, 83 species of echinoderms and many crustacean species including 120 copepods, 15 amphipods, 145 crab and 48 shrimp species. Therefore, the Maldives is especially vulnerable to climate change impacts such as the rising of the sea level, bleaching of the coral reefs, ocean acidification, and increases in severe weather events.

 Compared to other island nations, the economic development of cross-sectoral Maldives tourism has been quite prosperous. From 1972 to 2012 the number of visitors increased from 1000 to 1 million growing by 4.4% each year. Tourism made up 34% of the GDP directly and 75% indirectly in 2011 stimulating other sectors such as transport, construction, trade, and financial services. The only mayor downturns faced were the tsunami in 2004 resulting in a 33% decrease of visitors, the global financial crisis in 2008 and its political instability in 2011 resulting from the overthrow of democratically elected president Nasheed. Tourism demand is slowly increasing from 2013, but its composition is changing: there is a growing Chinese tourist segment that starts to replace the previous European flow, that was weakened due to the economic crisis.

Due to the political instability in the last decades, the government has only recently started to focus on sustainable tourism development as shown in the Fourth Tourism Masterplan consisting of economic and conservational aims to be fulfilled by 2017. However, the conservational and sustainability aims do not receive as much emphasis as the growth of its current tourism capacity.

In the Maldives some resorts and private researches started a programme to rehabilitate parts of the coral reefs to promote the growth of new coral. Other destinations have developed marine protection a lot further. The Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park in the Philippines is an excellent working example of a sustainable approach to marine tourism. The park demonstrates how tourism helps in sustaining the park and raising awareness on conservation needs of coral reefs. Tubbataha Protected Area Management Board (TPAMB) consists of both public and private stakeholders balancing the interests of all parties. It would be interesting to follow conservation projects in the Maldives similar to the Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park with an emphasis on the involvement of the local population who has been rather resentful to tourism development, as it interferes with their culture and environment.

Possible Research Questions:

  • How does the shift to a larger Chinese tourist population impact on the conservation of the marine ecosystem in the Maldives?
  • Does the trend of coral farming promoted by Resorts actually benefit the renewal of coral reefs?
  • To what extent are the policies for marine conservation set by the Maldivian government in the Tourism Action Plan 2000-2017 implemented?
  • To what extent can the “model” of the Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park be adapted to the Maldives?



Etivity 3 – Case description, Research question

Sunday, September 21st, 2014

The group of 5: Stella Virve, Lorena Caro Bautista, Shima Ahmadi, Jiayuan Guo, Amy Zhang.

Chosen Case Study: Poltras, L., & Getz, D. (2006). Sustainable Wine Tourism: The Host Community Perspective. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14(5), p. 425-448.

Initial research question: What are the specific impacts of sustainable oenotourism to the local community? 

Brief Case Description:

Case study “Sustainable Wine Tourism: The Host Community Perspective” focuses on the challenges that a small town named Oliver in British Columbia faces in the process of wine tourism development.
This activity has several consequences for natural environment and agriculture as well as for the local community. Issues concerning sustainable wine tourism in Oliver are classified by multiple stakeholder perceptions and are divided into 6 category: economic, environmental, social, agricultural, wine and tourism. In order to summarise all the issues signified in the categorization, a SWOT-analysis is made. To faciliate the process and lessen the negative outcomes, reccommended goals and strategies for sustainable wine tourism in Oliver and nearby area are developped. The action areas are following:

  • integrated planning for community, economic development, agriculture, wine and tourism;
  • environmental management;
  • infrastructure development;
  • community and cultural development;
  • tourism development;
  • marketing development:
  • wine and wine marketing.

The goals for sustainable wine tourism at the community level are divided into three sections: environmental goals, economic goals and social goals for wine tourism.

Negative apsects that emerged are following:

  • wrong types or over-development can negatively influence on their rural and small-town lifestyles (loss of agricultural land and ruralness);
  • discussion of priorities at the community level, conflicts in order to find solutions.

A vision for Oliver is suggested: Oliver’s vision for wine tourism is that this form of economic activity will povide sustainable benefits to businesses and residents alike, without damage to our natural environment, our heritage and our way of life. Wine tourism should provide our community and areas with a competitive, long-term advantage, and enhance the quality of our physical environmnet and way of life. As Wine Capital of Canada, Oliver will come to be recognised nationaly and internationally as a high-quality destination for dedicated wine tourists. (Poltraz & Getz, 2006, p. 438-439)



Wednesday, September 17th, 2014

The day we visited Christiansfeld it was the first time I even heard about the Moravian Brethens. I was very impressed that the town, its building and the culture of the Moravian people was so well preserved. The little town had a really peaceful and quiet and also safe atmosphere (apart from the construction work). I had the impression the inhabitants of Christiansfeld are balancend and content people who enjoy their life and their old traditions. It is astonishing that they kept their own traditions and culture for such a long time.

I do understand their initial concerns about tourists coming to their town. It is always difficult to give tourists the opportunity to get to know a place and its environment and at the same time not disturb the locals. Being on the UNESCO world heritage list could help them to preserve their culture (traditions, architecture, religion) even more and be proud of their culture. Certainly being part of the UNESCO-list would also mean that more people will come and visit their town. In that case good guidance of the tourist is needed. The woman who showed us the town was integrated in the society as well and she was telling us about her “personal” experience with the Morivans. Tourists should be well informed about the Moravians and their culture in order to be sensitive while visiting their home.

In my opinion a sustainable tourism development in Christiansfeld will be possible. The culture itself is based on equality, everyone has the same right to take a decision. That means the Moravians took a decision together as a community to welcome tourists in their town. That is a really important aspect, because if the locals do not agree to tourism it can not be sustainable.

The Moravian church can be found in many countries all over the world, so maybe tourist and also Moriavians can get the change to visit several communities on all over the world. For the Moriavians it would be a great chance to strengthen their cultural identity.

I am curious to visit Christiansfeld again when it will be part of the UNESCO heritage list.



Chrisiansfeld and sustainable tourism development

Wednesday, September 17th, 2014

From my point of view buildings and old constructions are always important and they need to preserve in a way which they are showing culture of a community.

About Chrisiansfeld I can say they are doing great, with all great efforts toward cultural sustainability they preserved this area also a great comfort zone for local people, cause as our great lady guide said from the beginning people didn’t support this improvement and renewing but after awhile that they saw this great change and all good impacts toward their lives they are getting proud of their town.

I think the way which they are acting now to put Chrisiansfeld in UNESCO list is so positive and appreciable, and it can even help the procedure of keeping it the same style as before the better.

my city view:


Christiansfeld divided by nine

Tuesday, September 16th, 2014

Authenticity. Peace. Tourism. Preservation. Tradition. Heritage. Architecture. Harmony. Simplicity.

Christiansfeld Moravian community has existed and has been developing in a tranquil and sustainable way since its creation back in the 18th century. Its nomination as a potential UNESCO World Heritage site raises an evident major question: How would Christiansfeld welcome the significant increase in visitors while keeping its uniqueness and its order? Would it still be possible for the Moravian community to preserve and sustain its past and present lifestyle?

Sandra Castañer

Tuesday, September 16th, 2014

Since my arrival in Denmark my eagerness of merging the boundaries between the “natives” and me/us has not s      stop. The main topic is about the weather and the only advise is: enjoy the last day of sun, it might be the last one!

But also that day we had a lucky one, and in a sunny and warm Wednesday, as in a primary class trip, we travelled    towards the old and traditionally preserved Christianfeld.

In my imagination I was visualising a little town with characteristic horse-pulled wagons, families in traditional        clothes and a preserved way of living. Probably I watch too many documentaries and movies !

So in the short journey I tried to find out more about the town, leaving intact my lack of information until the last    moment, and I started questioning about the religious way of life in the 21st century.


And this is the first glimpse of it :



It is really what I would have expected from Christianfeld? Probably not. But I went once again beyond the first               impression and I opened my eyes and I tried to combine me with the surrounding.

The time was too little and after an interesting, sometimes soporific and non so well organized, explanation of the         project we had the chance of walking around the town.


It is indeed a nice place to visit, to pass by and it would be interesting to go again once the project and fixing works will be finished. The preservation of it has just started, but as the inhabitants replied to my question whether they are happy or not and being the answer a positive one, I believe that a big step has already been achieved.

Everyday sustainability in Christiansfeld

Tuesday, September 16th, 2014

Instead of looking for more abstract signs and hints for sustainable development I came across some small easy means to lead a sustainable life.

While talking about big actions to turn things sustainable, I think we should never forget the simple things to help nature and people around us such as putting up a sign to save energy, having a garbage bin in a green park and giving handicapped people a chance to enter a house.

What I have heard about the Moravians’ lifestyle this attitude towards helping each other and leading a responsible life seems very natural to them. I liked discovering proofs of it and this cute little town of Christiansfeld.

Christiansfeld: A peaceful town in Tourism construction

Tuesday, September 16th, 2014

It was a on a wednesday, the beautiful cobblestones of a town called Christiansfeld invited us to enter a forgotten, peaceful community on the edge of what could be life changing decisions.

Prof. Liburd took us, students Tourism Management, to this town to reflect upon STD, and the ongoing developments in Christiansfeld.
The town, a potential UNESCO world heritage site, was founded upon the principles of the Moravian church, and is today one of the best preserved sites with a community still practicing this religion. Although today the Moravian community is not the dominant actor of this town their tangible heritage remains and takes the growing amount of visitors back in time. This increase of visitors is a result of governmental efforts to put this town on the tourism map of Denmark. As the town finds itself in a final stage of the first step to be nominated as a UNESCO heritage site, the Moravian community and culture will be impacted through this nomination and thus a faster growing visitor amount.

Before I give an analysis of Christiansfeld and its tourism development I would like you to give a quick peek into my visitor experience. My first impression was a town under construction in the urgency of finishing before an approaching event. My second impression discovered a village founded by a community with unique values, believes, and organizational structures. I found that these underlying, intangible cultural aspects are still today represented by their tangible heritage, such as on-off a kind: architectural style, town planning and graveyard. My third impression was; where is this community? and how do they fit in this strategie of tourism development?

When I reflect upon tourism development and this town I see a strategie evolving around the Moravian culture and heritage. At the other hand I did not hear about any community involvement. Our guide talked enthusiastically about the towns efforts for the nomination as world heritage, but when the question was posed where and how the Moravian community fits in, she responded that at first an irritation was growing in the community as a respons to the increasing number of tourist but than these feelings changed when they understood the economical benefits. To me it seems that somehow this community was excluded from planning process and managing tourism in their village.
According to Dowling(Singh et al., p 206) it is fundamental that a host community participates in tourism planning and development to gain attitudes and perceptions of residence views on their environment, tourism development and on tourists. To me this seems a basic step thaw has been skipped in the process of tourism development. It seems only logical to analyse how the Moravian community actually thinks about tourism and the development of it in Christiansfeld. When looking at the planning process, this step could have been incorporated in the profiling phase. According to the the textbook: Understanding the sustainable tourism development, community profiling integrates tourism development into the life of the community. This way issues or concerns could have been identified and thus possibly avoiding the first negative response of the Moravian community towards the visitors.
Thus, community involvement or in other words empowering the community is something that cannot be overlooked and should be reconsidered in Christiansfeld. Three types of community empowerment exist: economical, psychological and political empowerment (scheyvens, 1999). The last category is to me particularly of importance in Christiansfeld. According to Scheyvens this means that; “the voices and concerns should guide the development of any tourism initiative from the feasibility stage to its implementation”. Of course this does not mean that the Moravian community could have decided on their own to apply for the nomination as world heritage site, but at least they could have guided how they want to be represented as a community.

The visit to Christiansfeld draw also my attention to high tourism potential of the town. At first glance the town seems nothing more, to an unknown tourist, than a structure of a specific kind of architecture, but this site has a lot more to offer than a selfie with  on the background a white church while eating some gingerbread. Though it is I have experienced as a tourist; a peaceful beautiful town which nice architecture and a brochure-guide that gives explenation to some particular buildings.
Cultural tourism would be the type of tourism that could be developed in Christansfeld. Most of the attractions are still in developing/reconstruction phase or might not have been considered developing. Fagence (Singh et al., 2003) names three kinds of sub-categories in cultural tourism: institutional culture, folk, and ethnic symbols. In Christiansfeld there is a major focus on the first sub-categorie, such as buildings and roads, and ethnic symbols, such as the church.  To me it seems that when including members of the Moravian community in the delivery of tourism services the visitors experience becomes more holistic. With this I do not mean that Moravians have to wear “authentic” clothing, but they could be involved in guiding visitors through the history of their village, by sharing stories and images or maybe even a Moravian festival. They should be made aware of their unique position and incorporate a sort of community pride.

In conclusion the development of Christiansfeld a cultural heritage site is an interesting project, which has benefits for the community and the rest of the village, e.g. economic benefits, and social benefits, e.g. community pride and rediscovering values and traditions. The increasing tourism arrivals will impact the community and this needs to be monitored.  But most importantly the community involvement needs to be reconsidered.


Etivity 2: Christiansfeld

Tuesday, September 16th, 2014

The days were passing by and I was getting more and more excited about the trip to Christiansfeld. About one year ago I’ve been in this town for my first time and funny enough I had a different approach to it. From that time I only remembered two things: beautiful and cozy hotel – Tyrstrup Kro, which is located just beside the entrance to Christiansfeld and of course the Honning Kage (Honey cakes), which were the reason I wanted to visit Christiansfeld. I think Danish people are proud both for their traditional cakes and the very unique accommodation tradition – a Kro.


This, my second visit, was much more informative. I saw the town from totally another angle, maybe more from the inside of the town – as we were listening to stories from the local person and got familiar with the history and culture of the town.

Before this visit I only associated Christiansfeld with the cakes, but a week ago I saw this lovely white church and from now on this is what I will be telling to others when talking about this town.  Not only that this church was so much different from other, but it also had this sandy floor.

I thought I was the only one to notice it, but after a while, somebody came up with a question about it. Our guide gave me a penny to my thoughts – was sand on the wooden floor used for sanding purposes or really for easy cleaning…? There I also remembered my grandmother, who used to dust the cement floor of her old kitchen with the sand before brushing it. Especially if it was wet from water.

I am not sure if I can put this sandy floor  to the approach of sustainability in Christiansfeld. But for me it is small things what counts and makes the difference. Same with newly planted trees on the streets, where first I thought that maybe “they” decided to take down old trees for some mad purpose and now realised that the town needs some nature… However, our teacher told me that them trees are replanted, because the old ones got sick and had to be replaced.

Inspired by the story of this town, I got curious about getting to know something else about it. By chance I met one friend of mine, who is living in Haderslev at the moment, but used to be in Christiansfeld a lot years ago. Just after our trip I happened to ask her what are her thoughts and stories related to Christiansfeld. Here is what she wrote to me:

(it was translated directly from danish to english by my friend using google translator )

Margrethe :

“Christiansfeld Is an exciting and historic city. I went to school in Christiansfeld for 3 years and worked in the city’s leading bank for 27 years. I left there in 1998. The city has a size that makes you know almost everyone. And there was a great gatherings. The city is characterized by the old and beautiful buildings of the Moravian Church. During my time in the city, was a part of these buildings about to fall apart, as the Moravians did not have capital for maintenance. The Jutland history also meant a lot for Christiansfeld. Just north of the city went the old border that separated Denmark and Germany. And it was here that King Christian X after the vote in 1920 was riding over the border to South Jutland on a white horse.

And then there’s honey cakes. Made from a secret recipe back from year 1783.  Almost all the kings and queens have visited Christiansfeld to buy honey cakes. I have even met Queen Ingrid on unexpected visits to the bakery.

The Moravian Church is a Christian movement. And church members pay membership to the association. A number of church members have resigned from the national church and pay instead the church tax to the Moravian church.

Around the world there are several cities built by the Moravians. But Christiansfeld is the only city in Denmark. There is a very large community in the church and as a member of the congregation participates actively in church work. They have their own choir and wind band. But all are welcome in the church. I have been there several times. Both worship and music events. The church is a large white room with sand on the floor. And very little decoration. The priest has a lectern, not a pulpit. My late brother was a member of the congregation. At the funeral the coffin is standing outside the church, because the church is for the living and not for the dead. And after the priest’s speech the blow orchestra goes in advance and the coffin and mourners following the approximately 500 meters to Gudsageren where people are buried. Children of its own. Women on one side and men on the other side. Everyone gets the same kind of tombstone.

Moravians in Christiansfeld got a lot of money from foundations and in connection with urban renewal. So many of the old buildings have been renovated.
The town is located not far from the water and the many cottage areas. And therefore many tourists visit the town .
The city also has some large companies such as Arla, Danæg and Skare Foods. And is nicely situated between Kolding and Haderslev.
There have been several subdivisions to greenfield land. I think the city is sustainable.”


Thank you for the lovely trip everyone!




Chrisiansfeld and sustainable tourism development

Tuesday, September 16th, 2014

During the classes of EMTM programme we had a chance to visit an interesting place : Christiansfeld. This place has an specific athmospfere. To be honest I hadn’t done the propre research before visiting. That’s probably why my senses once at place were even more triggered =) So I build up my perception of this place first on impressions which I linked later to knowledge provided by our lovely guide. By the way, this lady had an tremendous impact on the place spirit. She shared some facts about the process of UNESCO application and in spite of tons of work you could feel her enormous implication. This kind of implication that makes you ponder. What is do unique about this place? Why should we even talk about it in termes of sustainable tourism development?  

And that’s my final scratch completed with some key words.

REASPONISBILITY: relationships between human beings(me,you,visitors,locals, representats of DMO) and use of the provided richesse

UNIQNESS : caracter of this place invite people to protect it even more

CULTURAL and ARCHITECTUAL REMAIN: our goal should be protect it for the future generation to come

KNOWLEDGE: Christiansfeld provides us with lot of precious information about the Moravians religion

LOCAL COMMUNITY: locals do actively participate and use this place for cultural gatherings


Etivity 2: visit to Christiansfeld

Tuesday, September 16th, 2014

I felt excited to visit a nominated UNESCO World Heritage site, as I visit UNESCO World Heritage sites more often.  It is interesting to witness how a historic town gets itself prepared for UNESCO World Heritage inscription.


Based on my very basic understanding of Christiansfeld, I believe it will manifest the universal values of embracing difference and diversity by its inscription. That is the starting point for Christiansfeld to create values and knowledge for visitors, especially it is nominated on the merit of (1) being an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history. It is a promising site which will illustrate to tourists how Moravian have passed on their non-conformist belief and their traditions.


It is also encouraging that the Moravians have ownership in the inscription process. Their ownership and pride will give significant meaning to the inscription. I believe international collaboration and exchange, just as through UNESCO World Heritage site, will facilitate the implementation of sustainable management of this heritage site.


It is often said heritage conservation is part of the nation-building process(2). In this regard, I would like to know more about how this Moravian town is related to the nation-building of Denmark. Other than technical reasons, given the international nature of Moravian church, there might be other reasons for singling this town out for inscription instead of nomination of an ensemble of site.


I sincerely hope that efforts of Christiansfeld citizens will pay off. I truly appreciate their passions in this.



(1) The Criteria for Selection of UNESCO World Heritage site; http://whc.unesco.org/en/criteria

(2) Munasinghe, H. (2005). The Politics of the Past: Constructing a National Identity through Heritage Conservation. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 11(3), 251-260. doi: 10.1080/13527250500160534

Christiansfeld & sustainable tourism development

Tuesday, September 16th, 2014

In a world that is constantly changing, bringing new information and technologies by the minute, there are still towns following their own paths and religious beliefs, in their own speed and calm, yet not so unaware of the world surrounding them. Christiansfeld is one of those little cities, with an active community of Moravians, right outside Kolding, who are sustainable trying to bring the city in the UNESCO list by 2015.

Throughout my stay in Denmark, I have visited countless of little cities, but none such as this one. Right  from the beginning the town looks different, with a clear architectural structure of both the buildings and  the streets. The taller buildings do indeed look different than in the rest of Denmark, but they also carry  a deeper meaning. As we were told, most buildings had a purpose of housing different groups in their  community (the brothers’ house, the sisters’ house, the vicar’s house) and they were following the simple  division: men on the right, women on the left of the church. 

The whole concept of having women and men  divided, also in church, shows how active the  Moravian  church actually is in Christiansfeld. The  community remains the same, is proud of who they  are, and  tries to keep their habits and beliefs intact.  I think the whole community is doing that in the  most  sustainable way they can, not harming what  has already been created and achieved culturally         throughout  the years.

I gather the concept of sustainability can apply for various situations, and Christiansfeld  does exactly that, with their purpose of remaining the same in a changing world and also m  making themselves more known towards the outside world. With enough management and  focus, I think the city could potentially become a more popular destination, without  disrupting the natural and tranquil course of their community.

Etivity 2 Christiansfeld – What does it mean to become an UNESCO World Heritage site?

Tuesday, September 16th, 2014

The field trip to Christiansfeld showed me that becoming an UNESCO World Heritage site means changing.

Especially for Christiansfield:

…it means renewal and rebuilding of old and historical buildings and streets.







…it means changing the tradtion.


A few years ago, the Moravian Church used to be closed for several reasons on specific days (I think it was Sundays). Just because of the tourists, the residents changed their mind after a while and opened the doors even on these particular days.


…it means more tourists in a small town







and referring to this less privacy and possibly increasing environmental pollution.








To my mind, it could be that some Moravians connect these problems with the inclusion of UNESCO World Heritage list. Therefore our tourist guide needed to explain more times the fact, what it means to become an UNESCO World Heritage site and why they want to be on this list. (as our tourist guide said on the trip)

This fact lead me to some questions:

–       Do the Moravians really want to be on the UNESCO World Heritage list?

–       Does the inclusion in the list involve prospectively a even bigger change according to the tradition of Moravians and the environment of Christiansfeld?

–       Does Christiansfeld act sustainable by renewal and rebuilding of old and historical buildings and streets?

–> Does the UNESCO World Heritage Label and Sustainability not include the fact maintaining the tradition and keeping the ancient monument?


Etivity 2-Christiansfeld

Tuesday, September 16th, 2014

The visit in Christianfeld was for me the 4th time in the village. As my classmate and friend Ernest already wrote, I was there with the bike several times. The first times that I went through the village I was not aware of its history and cultural heritage and any kind of panel or written information was available to read when passing through the town. The visit we had was a general speech about how the town ws structured, why it is special and we recieved some valuable information regarding the Moravian community living there.

As you can appreciate in the picture below, we had the opportunity to visit the Moravian church, located right in the center of the town of Christianfeld.

The issue concerning the sustainability in Christianfeld and its developement is, in my opinion, very well related to its possible inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage by 2015. The town is unique, cozy and small, and offers the opportunity to visit a real moravian town. The main concern is their very few visitors per year and how much this would increase being the town a UNESCO World Heritage site. Like it happens with most of the destinations, it is quite difficult to find a  100% sustainable way of running a destination having some good profit in the end. Likewise, Christiansfeld nowadays is visited by a few visitors and no major damage or destruction is done. Sustainability is related to the town in a very strict way and, as for now, the town is trying to position themselves into the tourism sector.

My question of concern is simple. Will Christiansfeld still be as original, well-preserved, enchanting and unique as it is nowadays after their possible inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage? I understand it might sound obvious, but as many destinations have proven, the lose of autenticity of the touristee towns and destinations is a reality and sometimes profit and degradation comes together.


Gonzalo Adell.



Sustainable tourism development and Christiansfeld

Tuesday, September 16th, 2014

Discussing our trip to Christiansfeld with our classmates, I noticed that vast majority of us had problems wrapping our minds around the idea of connecting the village with concept of sustainability. However, later on we realized that we keep thinking of sustainability as an environmental issue and have overlooked completely the cultural aspect. Christiansfeld is not just ruins of a long lost civilization, remembered only in literature and burried relics, it is a living and breathing society that has managed to survive through major turmoil and gigantic changes in society – with some adaptation, of course, but core values remained the same. What sustainable tourism development can do in said situation, is to present the lifestyle and history of Moravians to the world and thus turn it into a profitable activity, while still allowing Moravian society to keep their lifestyle and traditions intact. With nomination for UNESCO world heritage site, this is exactly what has been happening in the old buildings of original Christiansfeld city centre – renovation of Sisters house is taking place at this moment (see picture below) and it is to be converted into primary school, music school and other facilities, preserving Moravian traditions for the future generations, while also generating profit and sustaining present generation.

Inside of Moravian church

Inside of Moravian church

Church is still used for everyday and special ceremonies
Church is still used for everyday and special ceremonies

Renovation of Sisters house

Tjaša Rahne


Christiansfeld and tourism

Tuesday, September 16th, 2014

Recently we went on a field trip to Christiansfeld. Christiansfeld is a small village close to Kolding founded by Moravians in late XVIII century. They city was planned before to build it up, no so common back when was founded. They planned the city based on the Moravian’s life style; it was a city to work study and be educated.

Nowadays Christiansfeld’s tourist office and the municipality are working develop there the tourism and bring back the spirit of the city founders. It has conserved the most historical building, and now they are making smalls repairs in some historical buildings and repairing the streets and the infrastructures.

As far as we saw they want to develop a sustainable tourism, environmentally and cultural, in there. The main goal it is to preserve and show the culture of the ancient habitants, how they lived, their belief, how the city looked like back then, etc…

The first of their goals is to include Christiansfeld to the UNESCO World Heritage list. It is a way to promote their job and also if finally it is included they will receive support (help and money) from the UNESCO to preserve the town and develop a new industry there but preserving the most important in the town, the culture and the past.

Christiansfeld photo tour

Tuesday, September 16th, 2014

I had visited Christiansfeld first time week before we were there together with our class. I had had a bicycle tour there. I was impressed that this town saved its historical and cultural heritage so authentic.

Earlier, I heard about Moravians but I didn’t know anything about their community. It was interesting for me to learn about Moravian’s life style and city planning. The tour enriched my view on sustainable tourism development. For me, sustainable tourism development meant only protection and development of nature’s areas. Now, I know that anthropological tourism resources aren’t less important than forests and mountains to develop rural areas or small towns.

After the excursion we had a rich talk with our guide about the obstacles and perspectives of including Christiansfeld to list of UNESCO World Heritage.

I wish Christiansfeld’s historical heritage will be under the protection of UNESCO in the near future.


Ernest Samsonchyk:)

Christiansfeld – Description (E2)

Tuesday, September 16th, 2014

Christiansfeld is a town placed on a tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The reasons behind this attempt to join the list are quite obvious. The town will get much more recognition in the world and will be pinpointed on many tourists’ maps.

The Church Square

I support Christiansfeld on its journey and see it as a unique town with a tight connection to the Moravian history. Walking through the town with a guide becomes an instant throwback to 18th century. Hearing explanations about the Moravians and their culture gives insights to the impressive architecture of the town. They cared about planning their city so perfectly, that one gets a feeling of being in a cardboard model instead of a town made out of yellow brick walls and red tiled roofs, surrounding the clean white church. Placement of houses (even special ones for unmarried), stores and the church is carefully carried out, to be compliant with the religion postulates and to accompany an inhabitant of the city throughout his/her life in every phase with an emphasis on practicality.

Tour guide

This attention to detail, carefully carried out planning and consistence in architecture is a main resource for touristic development of the city, and being of its kind makes it extremely sustainable. Our visit itself was sustainable, with the guide using only her words and leading to allow us to experience the city.

The fact that Moravians own most of the houses in the centre means that the city council cares about the local community preservation, which is one of the main ideas of the concept of sustainable tourism development. There is a focus on the town’s cafes and bakeries, where the town’s typical ginger bread cakes, wine, coffee and chocolates are sold, affecting the tourists’ sustainable behavior in the town.

Learning about Moravian culture in The Church

There is still some development needed, as explained by the tour guide, in collecting more content to present to tourists. This would include stories about Moravians, the town and its architecture. Even though the tourism organization has developed a new town map and an app for tourists, I believe this is just the start in creating the all around experience that the tourism organization wants tourists to go through in Christiansfeld. An idea would be to create an experience of a Moravian back in 18th century and take tourists on a tour with simulations about how couples were decided, how decisions were made, how religion was practiced in a typical 2-3 hours of life of a Moravian. Even the simulation of how city was being planned would be interesting and would comply with the Kolding municipality’s touristic orientation on design, so it will be possible to include the town in a bigger tour of the whole municipality.

Viktor Husag

Christiansfeld – a world heritage site?

Tuesday, September 16th, 2014

UNESCO. Our visit to Christiansfeld made me re-evaluate the influence of this world organization. I was asking myself: what is the importance to be included in the UNESCO List of the Global Cultural and Natural Heritage. Is it indeed from such a high significance? Everyone is struggling to be in this top league. Hoping this can influence the development of a specific site, hoping it will help local communities sustain their natural way of living and in the same time increase visitors’ flow meaning income. UNESCO is an elite club where all the members can benefit from their membership in different ways. But what it takes it be included in the prestigious list? I decided to make some kind of a research on this topic and started browsing the Internet. “Heritage includes sites, which are of great importance to humanity, therefore their conservation and preservation is a priority..”  In brief, there are several words that were constantly highlighted: uniqueness, value, tradition.

The site should be a symbol. It should capture in itself an idea, a belief, and a tradition. Then, is it applicable to Christiansfeld? The Moravian society is indeed a unique society. Their values and principles embrace the theory of sustainability. They maintain their cultural integrity in a manner respectful to the surroundings and to the environment. Is this sufficient to put them into the list? Coming from a country with nine UNESCO sites – seven cultural and two natural, there is an urgent need for actions. The city is not tourist oriented. There should be more information available about the history and the culture of the Moravians (in different languages and different communication channels). Visitors should be provided with more opportunities to indeed feel the uniqueness of this place as stated in all the brochures but lacking this feeling in practice.



Etivity 2

Tuesday, September 16th, 2014

To my mind, the one and only attribute that makes Christiansfeld worth visiting and worth being on the UNESCO world heritage list is its rich history. We were lucky enough to have a very competent guide who was able to introduce us to the life in Christiansfeld long time ago. Also, she presented the town and its history in a very interesting way.

This should be taken into consideration in case Christiansfeld becomes a more successful tourism attraction – e.g. by making it onto the UNESCO world heritage list. Tourists to Christiansfeld should experience its history on a mandatory basis since otherwise, some might leave the place disappointed. This could result in bad word of mouth and so on….

I experienced Christiansfeld as a neat and restored little town. But also as a town with not too many things to do except for taking a guided tour. Obviously, the residents would have to fully agree with the plans made for Christiansfeld to assure a sustainable tourism development for the community. High participation amongst residents in shaping those plans would be a good start into becoming a successful tourism attraction. Residents would have to agree on the extend to which tourists can influence their daily lives. If they are fine with a higher influence, I think it would be a good idea to open more buildings or make it somehow possible to let tourists experience the town more actively.  This however, should be managed in a way that the town and its atmosphere does not change dramatically. I think, Christiansfeld is the perfect place to learn about the heritage of the Moravian church. But as I already mentioned, without a guide I think tourists will be lost and/or disappointed. Especially, as I did not see many signs, where tourists could inform themselves about the place, e.g. reading about its history, special buildlings etc..

Etivity 2 (Joy)

Tuesday, September 16th, 2014

I’ve never heard about Moravian before, but they do have a fascinating culture, how they built the town, created the community, and how the boys and girls lived separately, if we could see the house, it’ll be great.

Christianfeld is a peaceful place, maybe cuz it’s under renovation, not so many tourists, it’s very quiet everywhere, that actually reminds me of the Puritans, couple years ago, some friends visited the Puritans community in States, those people still follow the original rules, they don’t even use electricity, and tourists could actually see and experience how they live, that to me, is sustainable.

Now back to Christiansfeld, it’s a beautiful place obviously, also with a rich culture, I checked the activity calendar, they have events from time to time, it’s a good way to preserve the culture, and for the renovation, I don’t know how many buildings remained the original look, and how many buildings are added the modern element, so speaking of sustainability, as a resort, it’s beautiful and with a nice environment, but as a culture heritage, I don’t know if the changes they made will decrease the sustainability.

Etivity 2 – Christiansfeld

Tuesday, September 16th, 2014

I’m actually a person who is really into exotic and astonishing views. This visit may be too short for me to experience the whole town but only a few pieces, such as the church, the grave yard and some buildings nearby, so it’s a little big difficult for me to make compliments about it.

As a tourism attraction, I have to say Christiansfeld does not have marvelous scenery. The unique thing about it is just its long long history about Moravian. But the thing is how to convey the messages directly and fast to tourists. We were there as a big group, about 30 people, it’s reasonable to have a guide and cost her 1.5 hours telling us history and stories. However, as normal tourists, only one or two visitors or family, no more than 5, they are quite unlikely to have a tour guide instead of just a little brochure, which makes it difficult to learn the history behind the old buildings.

I went to Aarhus  some days ago, I think Christianfeld is more or less quite similar to the open air museum of Aarhus, but the open air museum is more attractive. I think it’s because the buildings in open air museum are fully open and used. For example, the old pharmacy presents what it looked like maybe hundreds of years ago and things are still on the shelves for sale. Though they are just fake goods, tourists can see what it is for directly without reading its explanation posted on the wall, which is quite time efficient and more importantly, interesting. For christiansfeld, it’s better to open the brothers’ house and the sisters’ house and present something, maybe workshops, or just some fake people to show the tourists of their daily life in the past. Or it just has but we didn’t see.

About the grave yard, I have to say I was quite impressed.  It is not a normal thing to have everyone’s plots identical and equal in size, despite of sex, wealth  etc.  It is quite a good tourism attraction for modern people to see the old-time equality and think more about modern life.

I think I’m going back to this place again, to see what I want to see but didn’t see this time, and also to see whether it has some old delicate stuff for sale. Anyone wants to join me?


Jiayuan  Guo(Julian)

Etivity 2 – Visiting Christainsfeld

Tuesday, September 16th, 2014

Having the field trip to this gorgeous town called Christainsfeld was so nice. I was very impressed because I didn’t expect to see the very old town which still have people to live in like a normal city.

I got a chance to learn the history of Moravians which I have never heard of before. As I have a passion about the old fashion stuff. I can sense the old, classic and all the cultures inside this beautiful town. I am also interested in the idea of how the Moravians separated the houses for unmarried men, unmarried women, couples and so on. It introduced me to see the way they lived in the past.


In my perspective, the most important thing of making the village the most sustainable is to keep everything just the way it used to be. And here is an excellent example of how to preserve the history, culture or even the religion. People are working so hard to keep this place sustainable by the help of local community.

Ps. I had a chance to taste some chocolate here, so much tasty – especially the cappuccino ones.


Etivity 2 – Christiansfeld

Monday, September 15th, 2014

I found Christiansfeld as a very peaceful place, despite all the renovations and heavy equipments on the streets. What I like the most is the simply style of the buildings and the way they are being renovated – everything is supposed to be like it was many years ago.

Honestly, I’ve never heard of Moravians before, and it was first time when I saw their church. As I am used to totally different churches , I was surprised with the simplicity of this one: white modest decor and  a lot of light.

It is easy to see that they are proud of their history, they want to stay connected to it and share it with tourists. But tourists can bring  good (for example extra income) and bad things (such as overcrowding). I really hope that with good management Christiansfeld can easily become a well-known tourist attraction, without loosing it charm and tranquility. And both, residents and tourists can enjoy the life in Christiansfeld.

I decided to show our visit to Christiansfeld in a short video. I hope you enjoy it.

Visit to Christiansfeld – video



Monday, September 15th, 2014

Visiting Christiansfeld is a very different experience for me.  It’s my first time heard of this town and first time visit. This small old town in Denmark is different from what I usually see, the crowed street, street there barely has people walking by and it is extremely quite.

The town was founded more than three hundreds years but it preserved very well I think, like the church and other buildings. And I think the tourist information center is very convenient.

Honestly, I don’t know the town very well. And I have to say, in a foreign visitor’s view, especially who don’t know much about the Moravian, it is a little bit less attracted to me than other cities. But there are three things that I have impressions, the honey cake, which is quite delicious, and the Moravian’s culture and history also the constructions everywhere.

I heard there are making many activities for tourist. And I think one way of it is to find more things about Moravian to make people interested. I know, from other cases, there are some historic towns they destroy the old things and than build some new in order to make it look better to attract more tourists. And it is so not sustainable.

So, keep it original and not just for more tourists to destroy what the town already has.


Monday, September 15th, 2014

Christiansfeld is an ancient town built by the Moravian church, who had a specific planning with the locations of each building (church in the centre of town surrounding by the members’ house), something which is similar with Spanish small village with the city hall in the centre of the town. The brochure said that the town was built more than 2 centuries ago and it is now a candidate of world heritage of UNESCO with resolution in 2015.

The town has a very tranquil atmosphere









There is a big green square in front of the church with a fountain.



The church










It was the first time I visited a Moravian church, it is decorated with only three colours (mainly white, then green and gold). Different from Christian church, Moravian church has lots of windows, with the natural light makes the church even whiter.







In order to keep the room with an adequate temperature, they have put thermometers in one of the roof-lamps.


It seems like the whole town is under construction, to preserve and restore the buildings.









During the walk through the streets, I saw there were lots of trees newly planted with special care


Maybe for our group the most important heritage in Christiansfeld is the bakery.

By the way, the cake I bought was delicious.


Taking everything mentioned above into account, I can say that the tourism office is doing a great job to achieve the world recognition about the town, in order to gain more tourists to come and visit this cultural heritage, by making the process in a sustainable way with the all conservation tasks.


My trip to Christiansfeld

Monday, September 15th, 2014

Last Wednesday I went with the class to the town of Christiansfeld. 

It was a tranquil town. Wandering through the streets you could really feel the history behind the town architecture.

We were given a small introduction about the town and its history in the main plaza and we got to learn about the Moravians, and the existence of the brothers’s house and the Sister’s House. It was very interesting to see that, although they were constructed very early (around 1774~76), they are still preserved until today.

These houses along with the streets and the Moravian Brethren’s church were in a renovating process, which is an indicator of an action of sustainability for the town.






Inside the amazing church, we were told about the traditions of the Moravians.

I find it particularly interesting for tourism. For those lovers of culture and history, visiting Christiansfeld will feel like going back to the past. Through the explanations of our tour guide, I could picture in my head the way men and women behave back in time.

We were told that  the decoration of the church (wide and beautifully simple) was to held many musical events. I believe it will be compelling to the visitors to hear the unique sound of this civilisation.


After our visit to the church, we headed to the God’s Acre (Gudsageren)


And last but not least, we went to the famous Bakery of the town.

It was appealingly decorated, with cute little boxes and chocolatiers. But of course, I had to try their traditional HonningKage. I was told about their cakes beforehand so I was exciting to try them out! I guess you could say that’s also a tourist attraction, specially for those who have a sweet tooth like me hehe


Needless to say, it was delicious!


So, to sum up my review about this little trip, I must say they are working really hard in maintaining the town in it’s original condition which is great to see. This way, the heritage of this town will not be lost. Also, I seen that the locals are extremely involved in this task, and that spreading the word and telling the history of the town to visitors seems a delightful thing for them to do. As for tourism related, this town is unique, with things unlikely seen in other parts of the world, which constitutes the attractiveness of this place, so it’s definitely a must-go for those interested in history and heritage.

Etivity 2- Christiansfeld

Monday, September 15th, 2014

The trip to Christiansfeld was interesting. The city consists of mostly old buildings and hence offers an impressive architecture. The history of the city and its traditions are pretty unique, and are being represented in many ways. The fact that I almost saw no other people in that city somehow created a little mysterious, but at the same time peaceful atmosphere. However, as can be seen in the pictures,  there is a lot of construction work going on these days. This illustrates the work-in- process procedure, related to the UNESCO application. However it is being tried to rebuild and keep the flair of the old buildings and therefore sustain its unique environment.

Franziska Stein

Etivity 2 Magic trip with some pities

Monday, September 15th, 2014

This trip is really not like what I imagined before. Through the brochure, we already got some background information about Christiansfeld. We even have known where the Moravian Brethren’s church and the Sisters’ House are and what these houses look like. Then I thought we could just walk around by ourselves and do some casual observations.

However, the guide gave us a magic trip by telling us the historical stories and customs of Christiansfeld, which I consider as the point to visit a cultural heritage. Looking at these old buildings, listening to the description, I can imagine how people lived long time ago. And the cemetery is really impressive for the concept behind­­­ that everyone is equal.

Maybe, it is because the repairing work has not finished yet that we could not visit the inside of the houses except the pure white church. What a pity for us. What’s more, I think the place still lacks some tourism facilities, such as explanation board and daily tourism activities. From my perspective, except protecting this area, it also needs some effort to make it more attractive to tourists.

Hope I will go back to Christiansfeld after it is really ready.


Christianfeld: cultural sustainability and new questions (Valeria)

Monday, September 15th, 2014

The visit at Christianfeld left me with a strange feeling. I for sure appreciated the beauty of the village, but also it rouse new questions that I would like to share with you.

What impressed me the most of Christianfeld is the idea behind it and how it evolved through time. It passed from being a religious community based on a strong set values, to be a community in the present time, reshaping its form, adapting it to keep up with modern lifestyles. What I felt as extremely interesting is the idea behind this little and mystical village. How should it try to keep its identity and authenticity? But even more: is there something to be kept, is there a strong a religious belief or should it recognize it as its ancient root and therefore open up to tourism? Visiting the little town a tourist can’t stop wondering how it would have been living there when it was a true religious community; the idea that naturally comes in my mind is then how the village could communicate it to the tourists.

When dealing with tourism regarding holy places, cultures and religions I always feel a sort of paradox. Is it possible to keep authentic habits and believes and at the same time have tourists visiting and taking pictures? How could a small reality such as Christianfeld deal with its fascinating past and our impervious modernity?

I feel there is a sort of sustainability in cultures and religions that deserves to be studied and analysed. In this sense I think that Christianfield can be an interesting case. What about you? What do you think?



Etivity 2 – Christiansfeld

Monday, September 15th, 2014

Christiansfeld is a very tranquil and peaceful town near Kolding. Its Moravian history is very well preserved, which makes it a unique place to visit and quite different from other tourist destinations in Southern Jutland.

From a sustainable tourism development standpoint two things come to mind.

Our guide mentioned that locals had turned from being annoyed by visitors to wholeheartedly embracing tourism as a way to share and take pride in their unique cultural heritage. This, perhaps slightly exaggerated statement, nicely illustrates how tourism can help to sustain and promote cultural heritage among local residents.

The historic buildings in the city centre have been very well maintained and restored. The oftentimes quite colorful brick walls are quite charming though I wonder if the municipality would provide the funds for these restoration / maintenance works if it wasn’t at least partly for the expected revenue that tourism generates. In other words: tourism might be driving some/most/all (?) of the city’s efforts to sustain its historic centre.


Etivity II (Suchi S Mahato)

Monday, September 15th, 2014

Christiansfeld gave me an impression of a town that was at peace with nature and its surroundings, even though it was tough for me to connect with its vibe.

I found the graveyard and the concept of numbering the graves quite interesting.  According to me, a grave is a representation of a live well lived. Even though we are born in a world full of equal (sometimes questionable) opportunities, our identities and the directions we lead our life in, is unique.  I would have liked to compare the ideology behind this graveyard to my understanding of graves. As I come from a Hindu background where we cremate our dead and build no shrines for our dead except for in our hearts, I can relate with not having a physical representation of a life well lived through a grave. Although having a grave signifying a life and yet not making it unique was something I would have liked to understand more about.

What I would recommend for Christiansfeld would be to have more detailed descriptions of the different places and the fundamental belief that they were built on, especially in German and English so that people can understand it more and compare it to their own ideology. Because Christiansfeld is not a regular tourist destination but based on Moravian belief, it is important for the people visiting to be able to understand, conceptualize, comprehend, compare and respect the very basic belief that the town’s foundations is built on.


Etivity 2

Monday, September 15th, 2014

Moravian is the most frequently word I heard from the guide lady. Although I don’t know much about the Moravian history and culture before, I was interested in their ways of living, such as girls live together and boys live together. Thanks to to the guide lady, I knew a lot about the history and culture about the town and Moravian.

I was also impressed by the tranquilized life of the locals. They seemed to have not disturbed by the outside word. Everything was as usual: the sky was blue, the streets were quite only now they are on the UNESCO heritage list. And they have gingerbread stores! I think that is really sustainable.

However, I think that to let more people know their culture and to develop their tourism, there should be activities in a more diverse ways to better communicate their culture to others and impress them.

Etivity 2 – Describing Christiansfeld in the theme of sustainability

Sunday, September 14th, 2014

The following captures stand for my efforts to grasp the connection between the theoretical concept behind sustainability and its practical implementation, using Christiansfeld as an example.

The evident and visually clear mixture of old and new bricks used for conservation of ruined and damaged areas, using authentic materials, is a wonderful example of a historical and ethical respect for a unique heritage site.

It is clear how the concept of garden where people would enjoy nature and contemplate still prevails deeply in Christiansfeld. It was the Moravians who brought that concept in Denmark, pioneering a sustainable attitude towards nature and cultural authenticity. This shop as a proof would evidently carry to nurture that attitude along in the future.

These two rainwater tanks, hiding subtly even from the most inquisitive eyes, show a wonderful example of how to make use of rain water for later use; a great economic and environmental idea combining sustainability and self-sufficiency.

The wooden floor of the church is sustained with practical acquisition of knowledge for the relevant material providing maintenance for the generations yet to come.

Every visitor takes a piece of belief at the beginning of the religious ceremony and takes it back after it’s finished. One may see the immediate connection with sustainability from the careful management of resources, i.e. the limited number of copies that constantly circulate among believers, in the same time giving it a deeper dimension of unity.

Candles instead of light bulbs! They also give a meek touch to the atmosphere during sermons.

The materials used for maintenance and reconstruction are of natural resources, not combined with materials that are environmentally toxic, with thoughtful use of isolation measures. Minimal technological advantages, but managing to be effective.

Bojana Bozhinovska (EMTM)


Etivity 2 – Violet

Sunday, September 14th, 2014

Visiting Christiansfeld was an interesting experience, though I didn’t quite sink into Moravian “vibe” (if you allow me the use of the term)… our host was not to blame, it was clear that she knew a lot… but, I wondered: wouldn’t the possibility of involving the inhabitants, descendents of the traditional families, be a way of bringing the 18th Century constructions to life for us visitors?
There are many different types of participation; since we are talking about sustainability, I believe making the community a component of this iniciative is also a path to presenting the city as a worthy candidate for UNESCO’s List of World Heritage Sites!

Etivity 2. Visit Christiansfeld. Moravian Culture and its Gingerbread bakery

Sunday, September 14th, 2014

Making a brief and short history about the Moravians Origins, its name comes from their original birth place of Moravia. They were forced to leave Moravia and the surrounding areas because of persecution from the Roman Catholic Church. As a consequence they moved to the South of Germany where they settled themselves in an area called Herrnhut. From there the Moravians evangelist began to spread the Moravian Church around the world as well as its gospel.

The first thing which I did after hearing the name of Christiansfeld , was to search information about the town, their culture origins and what it is still remaining from the original Moravian Culture.

It was an interesting visit where I could taste the architecture of parts of the town with construction from the 17th  18th century , painted yellow washed color wall and roof in tiles made in the village. As the words came out from the lovely guided lady, the beliefs and values from the town made me to think about the term “Sustainability” and the process to become a UNESCO “World Heritage site”. A great opportunity for the development of the town within 3 dimensions “social, economic, environmental”. Unfortunately part of the host community were not completely happy about the process to obtain this “certificate” due to the fact of renovation of the buildings and surrounding areas.

Sweet and delicious gingerbread and honey cakes could be a symbol of attraction and improvement of growing Touristic visit in the area.

E-tivity 2- The tale of Christiansfeld

Sunday, September 14th, 2014

"An organizations' inherited values gives sense to its economic activities" (Westphalen 2004)

Christiansfeld is a peaceful community with proper infrastructure, rich culture and great tourism potential. The church, deliberately located at the center of the town, is an indication of the centrality of God to every aspect of the Moravian way of life.  Built upon strong Christian values, the town of Christiansfeld is faced with very difficult developmental decisions. Intrinsic to the Moravian way of life, are the core values, Liburd suggested, future influential tourism leaders should embody; ethics, stewardship, professionalism, knowledge and mutual respect. Thus, policies should be grounded, not only in the current financial or developmental issues at the destination, but the aforementioned values and common future all stakeholders envision for themselves and the generation to come.

Sustainable tourism development ideology postulate,  tourism development can be sustainable if planners and policy-makers utilize the four pillars of sustainability to set the foundation for current and future development. Economically viable, socially equitable, environmentally conscious and culture specific tourism has been the most recent conceptualization of STD. Often, in the literature, examples can be found where destinations compromise (prostitute) their core values (tangible and intangible) to become more visible and increasingly attractive. Already signs are evident of this , a red house can be seen where a huge garden used to be, it seems the town of Christiansfeld has chosen, I pray core values prevail.

Butler 1980 and Doxey 1976 provided experiential models to describe development and the subsequent changes that occur at each stage of destination development. Butler highlighted a triple bottom line and to some degree PESTEL analysis of destination development; while Doxey shed light on residents attitudes,  as visitor number and developmental activities increased at the destination. Butler’s analysis appears to be linear in nature, suggesting destinations follow specific stages towards development, however, more recent research indicate destinations may skip some stages or simply exist in between stages at any given time. Destination carrying capacity and the nature of tourism resources has been identified as influencing factors in regards to the characteristics observed at any given stage of destination development. Christiansfeld shows signs of Butler’s 1980 involvement and development stage, reports by our tour guide indicate signs of residents irritation.

From a sustainability perspective the degree of local ownership, and the influence of core values and beliefs on Christiansfeld development activities is of major concern. So to, the ” residents anxiety towards” the UNESCO project, who believe ” they already have to many visitors”. These symptoms have been identified by Doxey’s (1976) irritation index. Doxey (1976) and Butler (1980) observed an inverse relationship between residents attitude towards increased tourist and tourism activities as destinations advances through stages of the  tourism area lifecycle. Christiansfeld is a small community with a limited carrying capacity, meaning, a relatively small number of visitors may crowd out residents, making them feel like strangers in their own home, along with other environmental and cultural changes.

In conclusion, it is critical that tourism planners and policy-makers at Christiansfeld undertake a contextual analysis of a destination, so that development is respectful and representative of the interests of all involved. It would be interesting to observe the nature of tourism development at Christiansfeld in the next five to ten years. Would residents leave? adapt? or take ownership of tourism development? what about the centrality of religious values to the destination’s image?




Sunday, September 14th, 2014

For me as a tourist who visits Christiansfeld for the first time, the first impression was lovely – it was clean, calm and had a peaceful atmosphere. As we were informed that Christiansfeld is being applied for the UNESCO World Heritage List, it is clear that after the realization of this project there will be a growing interest of foreign tourists towards this area. Therefore I would draw attention to the Christiansfeld homepage which functions as the first information source in order to get to know the area. The homepage should be improved, because at this point the English and French versions are not correctly displayed and the information is a little bit confusing.

However, the fact that there are different festives and events organized is a great plus, as there are activities which intorduce the city to those, who haven’t been there before. And of course the sweet gingerbread and honeycakes are wonderful instruments to promote Christiansfeld and make the visitation experience more pleasant and “delicious”.

Etivity 2 – Christiansfeld

Sunday, September 14th, 2014

The characteristic of Christiansfeld that has mainly caught my attention is the structure of the city based on religion principles. Like a perfect circle, the town is developed, both physically and idealistically, around the main square, in which the church is placed.


Etivity 2 (Binh- Brandy)

Sunday, September 14th, 2014

My first impression of Christiansfeld is that the town is very well-preserved and unique. When I was there, I felt like I was travelling back in time. It is really amazing the work of the local people and Christiansfeld Center to keep the town the way it was.

Trying to look at the town from a sustainable tourism point of view, below are my personal opinions about Christianfeld:

–          Unique tourism products which can be seen as Christiansfeld’s competitive advantages: the town itself and the history, culture of Moravian people. Searching for information, I found out that Christianfeld is also a popular place for people to get married. And of course, the gingerbread.

–          There are different, well-developed promotional activities by Christiansfeld Center: brochures and handouts, website linked with Visit Kolding and Visit Denmark, annual events and holidays… However, I could not find much media coverage for the town and I am curious about what are being done to affect a tourist’s decision making process to come to Christiansfeld.

–          I admire the preservation process going on in the town and so far I have not noticed any environmental problems.

–          As our guide lady mentioned before, the local people at first did not prefer tourism and its consequences. For certain we cannot deny some social-cultural impacts that tourism can bring to the locals, therefore actions have to be done to assure their needs. The good news is that after seeing the positive sides of tourism (more tourists creating economic income and jobs, Christiansfeld on World Cultural Heritage candidate list, preservation of the town by local authorities), the locals are getting proud of their town and actively participating in tourism activities and taking advantage of the opportunities tourism creates.

–          As Christianfeld is a small town, tourists usually take day-tours and therefore will not stay long or spend much money on tourism products. I would recommend Christiansfeld to have more interactive activities and events for tourists  in order to encourage them to stay longer, spend more money and get more connected with the culture and local life.

Etivity 2 – Christiansfeld

Saturday, September 13th, 2014

Standing in the middle of The Church Square in Christiansfeld, surrounded by yellow washed color brick buildings and the harmonious atmosphere formed by them, I tried to picture the life back to the 18th century in this town, imaging the calm and peaceful living style in this area.

But suddenly I realized, I don’t even need to make up an image of the place, because what I just saw and experienced is about the same as years before. By finding out that the church, bakery and cemetery are still in use and connected with local communities, I learned that the history and culture of Moravian settlement has been passed down from generation to generation, making Christainsfeld a special and educational destination for visitors in Denmark as well as a cultural heritage to all human beings.

Besides attracting more tourists to come, it is also critical to focus on the needs of host regions in the ideas of sustainable tourism development. According to the guided lady, residents in Christianfeld did not enjoy the fame and crowd which come along with the acknowledgement of being on UNESCO’s list of world heritage site at the beginning; they prefer to lead a quiet life instead of being well known by tourists. However, as the organization of Christiansfeld Centre contributed to build up communication and knowledge for the conservation of its architectures and Moravian history, local communities has established identity and proudness of being part of the cultural heritages. With the recognition by both inhabitants and visitors, Christianfeld is prospering and playing an important role in tourism development in the area.

Coming from an Asian country, I did not have much understanding about Moravian, nevertheless, visiting Christiansfeld and getting to know the buildings in town within their context, I was impressed by the supportiveness of communities and the ongoing dynamic projects conducted in these houses. Sustainability is therefore practiced, as the cultural integrity and life systems is reinforced and economic, social and aesthetic aspects are also fulfilled.



Etivity 2 Christiansfeld

Friday, September 12th, 2014

While visiting Christiansfeld, the portrayal of a traditional Moravian settlement, I was inspired by the uniqueness of the Moravian community and their lifestyle. I consider the first step to cultural sustainability to gather knowledge about the beliefs and customs of the local people to secure their comfort towards touristic projects.

That is why I have dedicated my blog to the Moravian Church:

Mind map: the tree of life of the Moravian church –beliefs and customs

Christina Bispink 


Friday, September 12th, 2014

If you walk around in the town Christiansfeld, the words that come up in my mind are peacefully, silence, religion, equality, small and old. It is one of the best preserved Moravian Brethren towns in the world.

As you can see in the pictures below, the buildings are all equal and the cemetary is also equal. It gives me the feeling that everyone in the town was similiar to each other.

Christiansfeld related to Sustainable Tourism Development (meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future), is that they wish to get on the UNESCO World Heritage List. They try to give Christiansfeld more recognation and they satisfy the needs of tourists by giving guide tours about Christiansfeld. Among other things, there is a café and bakery, where the original Christiansfeld honey cakes are sold. The environment is not suffering, the Moravian people are still living in the town and the buildings aren’t changed at all. If Christiansfeld is more known (for example, if they are on the World Heritage List), it will be a positive factor for the Local community of Kolding because more people will come to the town. So,Christiansfeld is trying to increase the tourism and it doesn’t influence the life style of the Moravian People. Everything is still how it supposed to be!

etivity 1

Tuesday, September 9th, 2014

Hello everyone,

This is the very first time posting something in a blog for me, so I don’t really know what to write. Well it’s good to start with introduction: my name is Marina, I’m from Russia. My whole life I’d been living in my home town Voronezh. It was the last semester of the bachelor’s programme and I went to the international office in my former uni. They suggested several options, but when I heard about the EMTM I just stopped… moving because of shock and I stopped looking for anything else. And as I wrote in my motivation letter: it lets a student not only to learn about tourism with studing, but also with experiencing it. (as we will do it tomorrow 🙂

Well, what about expectations of this course… I hope to fully grasp the concept of sustainability and tourism sustainability. I got the idea but it always takes some time to get used to terminology, to learn not only the definition of words, but also the complex system of meanings it’s containing. I hope that not by the end of the course but much sooner, I’ll be able to understand the subject and everything related to it.

Best regards,

Marina Tcaturian.

P.S. seems like it took more time to complete it than i expected 😀

Etivity 1

Tuesday, September 9th, 2014

As I am not coming from a tourism background at all, my main expectation to this course will be that by the end of the semester I will understand the term “Sustainable Toursim Development” fully including the different nuances. After our first lesson I gained some insight in what sustainable tourism is and I expect we will learn more about how to develop the future tourism destinations in a sustainable way.

One of my aspirations for studying this master is to help brand and develop my native part of Denmark in a sustainable way. One of the national parks (Vadehavet) has just been added to World Heritage list and I would love being part of the development of this area to ensure it staying unique and keeping the environment safe while at the same time letting tourists see this special place.

Denmark has an abundance in natural tourist destinations and I think it is important to think about the future and not exploiting the nature until it succumbs erasing the unique characteristics Denmark offers. This awareness of protection our nature has especially come after a trip to Iceland this summer, where paying for entrance to their nature attractions has just been introduced to help paying for the conservation of their nature. Limiting the access to a natural sight is impossible without large fences and thus introducing the paradox of harming nature to protect it, as fences will impose on the animal life and it will destroy the view/sightlines.

I also expect this course will change my own view on my personal travels and make me more critical regarding information giving to me about tourism/destinations.

As for suggestions to the course I would love examples and as many as possible as these help me understand the concepts/terms and see how the theory can be transferred to real life. On a smaller note I would like the teacher to write numbers on her PowerPoint slides making it easier to take notes during class.

Ulla Egknud

Natural development

Tuesday, September 9th, 2014

I had the doubtful privilege of growing up in a micro tourist destination. My family was the owner of a small campsite, bar and restaurant. It was a very popular place but slowly as I grew older, the visitors were decreasing. My parents used phrases such as economy and demand. Phrases I fully understand now.

What happened to our small campsite was a change in tourist attitude and trend. Old-fashioned and authentic gave way to a demand for modern luxuries and as little work as possible. The tourist no longer wanted to cook their own meals, make their own tents or travel for the experiences. I believe my father called it an ‘I want’ mentality.

Our small campsite, though located in the middle of a forest and with a small beach, could not compete with larger campsites who had swimming pools, computer rooms, mobile homes and easy accessibility to waterparks, cities etc. Needless to say, we sold and moved.

Today, the much larger campsite we ‘competed’ against are having a hard time. It is as if it has outlived itself. I suppose that is truly why I am interested in STD – why does some places appear healthy but fade in a matter of years? How does these places both stay healthy but also remain assets to the local community? How does these places stay in tune with the now while preserving the then and focus on the when and if? And how big a part does natural ressources and cultural/social currency play?

I look forward to finding at least some answers, but more likely I will find more questions to be curious about.


Beyond sustainability

Tuesday, September 9th, 2014

As always the beginning of a new experience in life put us in a situation where the human behaviors are highly recognizable: we tend to stay in group, familiarize to each other, learning what makes us happy or angry, etc.

 Although this is the normality, thinking about the other human behaviors ( the hostile ones ) which they might arise depending on special combinations in life, a question comes in my mind: how much do we respect?

 I have tons of ideas, words, and way of expressing myself, and it is very hard for me to choose the right way of saying things: every word count has its own power and can change completely the meaning. This way of thinking makes me a very slow person ( that is why I am taking ages to write this post!).

 I am trying then to catch fleetingly just few thoughts of mine.

 I had an amazing work experience when I was living in London, not because I was making the best food in the world ( I was making simply grill meat and other simple staff, for a very restricted clientele) but simply because I was helping a best friend of mine. Why I am saying this? Both of us were inspiring each other and constantly on the wave of discovering new definitions of life, I am not arrogantly say that we found the ultimate truth, unfortunately for our pockets we didn’t, but I remember discussing about the theme of respect. I agreed of its one word definition: Awareness!

What is being aware? It is so difficult to philosophize on this but I would for example suggest to try our best to work for the environment we are living in, and take now an active part on it.

 We were asked to describe our expectation of this course, well I dream about explaining and complete furthermore the definition of this incredibly powerful word such as respect.

 I would have had another theme to talk about, and I will just highlight the subject for now. I think that the human-centric way of causing problems and disasters, e.g. the global warming, is incorrect. So what is sustainability then?


Etivity1 – expectations

Tuesday, September 9th, 2014

Thinking about sustainability, first of all, I have to say, that this definition came into my life only a year or two ago. In Lithuania, where I come from, the subject is pretty new and it would be hard to find at least one pupil out of ten who would know what it means to be sustainable. Yes, I need statistics to be more precise about it. But I am only seeing it from my point of view. However, I just want to highlight a situation in my country, which I believe is a subject to change. Lithuania is not a well known spot for tourists, but as all people do, Lithuanians like to travel. In my opinion, to understand the importance of the sustainable development is a key element. Unfortunately, I am afraid that it can be a difficult task for some.

Therefore, I am not strongly familiar with the idea of what sustainable development carries. Especially in practice. So my expectations from this course would be: to learn as much as possible about the idea of sustainability.  Also, would be interesting to hear challenges which occur. And the main rhetorical question – can we change the way how our society is ‘used to do things’?


Sustainable Tourism Development course expectations

Tuesday, September 9th, 2014

I have lived in a tiny country called Slovenia my whole life. It’s where my closest friends and family live, it’s where I spend my weekends hiking, swimming in lakes, cross-country skiing and I love it for its size, diversity, quietness and unspoiled nature. When I travel, I am often surprised how many people have never heard of my home country, or only know enough about it not to confuse it with Slovakia. On the other hand, it also makes me happy that Slovenia remains Europe’s best kept secret, especially when I read stories like the ones from Malaga and several parts of China.

As a nation, we have so many beautiful sights to show to the world and so many wonderful things for all kinds of tourists to do, which could both help boost our economy back to a healthy state as well, but at the same time, we are all overprotective of our little piece of land and basically afraid that mass tourism might destroy everything beautiful that we have left – our nature and culture. That’s why one of my expectations for this course is simply to get insight or inspiration for what can be done in Slovenia’s situation through discussions, lectures, case studies of successful and unsuccessful similar projects and for most through ideas of my colleagues and those of my own. Hopefully, in years to come, I will be able to put these ideas into practice and make sure that the beauty of my home country is preserved for future generations, while still making the most of it economically.

Tjaša Rahne

Etivity 1- Expectations

Tuesday, September 9th, 2014

One of my expectation to this course is to get a better understanding of Sustainable Tourism Development.I love to travel, discover new places and meet new people from all around the world and therefore I always felt connected to tourism. One of the problems is that a lot of people don’t really think about the impacts their travel has on the environment or the destination they are visiting. I am of the opinion that one interesting and really important part of this subject is to understand how to make local people in developing countries aware of the fact that sustainable tourism is important. People talk a lot about this growing issue, but at the end it’s important to educate and teach the locals, why and especially how they could change their behavior in order to contribute to the destination in the most responsible way. People can not only travel around the world- always striving towards higher expectations- without thinking about possible consequences and effect their behavior might have on the future. Therefore I think that the awareness and teaching of responsible development is important while taking many different points regarding nature, society etc. into consideration.

I am really looking forward to exchange opinions on the topic of sustainable tourism development, because tourism includes the exchange of opinions from people of different backgrounds and cultures. This helps to receive a broader perspective on ones own point of view and could help to make a little change.

                                      Franziska Stein

Course expectations

Tuesday, September 9th, 2014

Hello, this is Viktor from Montenegro. Guess what’s the most important and fastest developing industry in my country. If we talked I am quite sure I have mentioned that it’s all about tourism, but you might already know this from “Montenegro – Wild Beauty” repeating commercial on CNN. Sustainable Tourism Development are the words I have heard too many times on the news in my country, usually said by the Minister of Sustainable Development and Tourism. I am pretty sure that the bigger part of the nation does not understand the true meaning of this concept, which makes it easier for politicians to use it as a fashionable phrase. We are constantly striving to achieve this idea and so far I have never heard any news about the actual implementation of it in my country. This is the reason why I have never paid much attention to this particular field of sustainable development.

Nevertheless, I believe in an idea of resource-based economy and the use of technology to overcome scarce resources by applying renewable sources of energy, computerizing and automating manufacturing and inventory, designing advanced transportation systems, and most of all generating a new incentive system based on human and environmental concern. Scandinavian countries have socio-economic systems which are a step towards RBE. I see that these ideas could have a huge contribution to tourism industries worldwide.

My expectations of this course are: first to get an insight into tourism industry (because I have had no education in this industry whatsoever), to understand how sustainability can be applied to tourism, and to learn about the actual applications of sustainable development concept in destination management (particularly marketing and branding), event management and hospitality industry.

Hope you’re well. See you tomorrow. 😉

Etivity 1 –

Tuesday, September 9th, 2014

According to my opinion the sustainable tourism development course is the first step in order to plunge students into the tourism field. Indeed, the title of this course includes the three main aspects that are necessary in order to deal with tourism management: tourism, development and sustainability. The word “sustainable” can have two different meanings at the same time. On one hand, it surely refers to the economic sustainability in producing products and services, because every business has to create value. On the other hand, the terms “sustainable” is referred to the volition of taking into account the social and environmental impacts. The world “development” bring to a perspective for the future because if there is not a plan in a long term horizon it is impossible to build something.

My expectations from this course meet directly the meaning itself of its title. Indeed, one of the main reasons for which I chose this master is to be able to change something, having a broader and more aware approach. Firstly, I would like to be able to change something in my own region, in the south of Italy. In the last few years, it has experienced an increase in tourism demand but without any holistic view that allow planning a conscious and intelligent development for the future. The sustainable tourism development it is a good start in order to build up knowledge and allow us to deal with a conscious planning process in any kind of activity related to tourism.


Matilde Guido


Tuesday, September 9th, 2014

First of all, I consider the field of sustainability to be of enormous importance in tourism.

My interest in the area of sustainability lie especially in the field of environmental sustainability. To my mind at this point in time it is not possible to create a truly sustainable way of travelling without innovation in technology. Movement always requires energy and as long as there is no commonly used alternative to usage of fossil fuels travel will be unsustainable from an environmental point of view.

I am therefore interested in learning about new and promissing ideas in the field of energy generation/transport as well as in viewpoints of others about my statement. Understood, airlines offer ‘CO2-neutral tickets’ and other compensation models exist (e.g. atmosfair). To my mind they form a good start and could be of good use as ‘bridge solution’. However, only a tiny share of travellers know about these possiblities and even fewer make use of them. Has anyone of you ever travelled using this kind of compensation? Why not? What should be improved in these compensation models? Is it about communication or about transparency? Isnt it our responsibility to use them if we discuss this topic?

Other points I am interested in, would like to discuss and expect to learn more about:

– How to raise awareness about their environmental impact amongst travellers (water consumption, waste etc….) ?

– Animal rights in tourism and getting people to think about it (camel, elephant riding etc.)?

– How to deal with ‘ignorant tourists’ who refuse to be educated about any sustainability issue? To what extend are tour operators / tourism business responsible for their customers?

many more i cannot think of right now…



ex·pec·ta·tion (noun)

Tuesday, September 9th, 2014

According to Merriam-Webster’s dictionary, an expectation is “a feeling or belief about how successful, good, etc., someone or something will be”. That something is in this specific case the Sustainable Tourism Development (STD) course, and I do believe that it will help me understand the existing controversial relationship between sustainability and tourism: How critical the current situation is? What can and should be done to improve it?

For years, mankind has been using and abusing Earth’s natural resources. Over consumption has been the norm without even considering that every action, every decision taking place today would inevitably affect the future of our planet and, consequently, the future of generations yet to come. It is now time to take a step back and ask ourselves how can we, as world citizens, contribute to the preservation of tourist destinations while continue offering stimulating experiences to the travellers. Raising awareness and educating the population is essential.

Being a beginner in the field of tourism, I come to this course eager to absorb knowledge of any kind just like a sponge. I wish to fully understand what the term STD stands for and learn what actions should be taken in order to further the continuous process of getting closer and closer to the unattainable absolute sustainability. Also, I am particularly interested in the topic of Sustainable Event Management. My ultimate goal is to be able to put into practice all the skills and knowledge gained throughout this course.

Sandra Castañer

Etivity 1 – There is no such thing as high expectations when it comes to sustainability!

Tuesday, September 9th, 2014

To be honest, sustainable tourism was a strange and vague concept from the very beginning, concerning the fact that I am a novice in the tourism field of studies. However, after the introduction lesson when we were introduced to the basic ideology, it stroke an incredible interest in my enthusiasm for further professional development; and I must say that I left the class brainstorming on all the possibilities that I could create, knowing that I truly left something behind in the end and that I MADE A DIFFERENCE.

That is why I need the academic guidance as a solid base for my future endeavors. My hopes center on gaining deeper knowledge on how to provide sustainability in reference to the integrity of a place, how to keep a balance between the tourist satisfaction and the community benefits by their involvement, in the same time protecting and enhancing the destination appeal by carefully planned conservation of resources and land use.

Furthermore, Geotourism would be of special interest to me as my country has enormous potential for development in this field of sustainable tourism. I would like to gain a deeper insight in the specific approaches that emphasize preservation of geological and geomorphological features. It represents a challenge for my knowledge and understanding since it addresses not only the environmental, cultural, aesthetic, and heritage dimensions, but it puts a great accent on the potential of conservation of abiotic diversity.

Lastly, I would appreciate a practical insight in the more rigid issues that may rise when projects on sustainability are implemented, as how to achieve ethical consistency during implementation, diplomatic tactics on approaching conflicts of political nature, communication methods on raising awareness on sustainability, participation of the government in tourism market implementation, successful measures and  instruments managing tourism flows in the line of fulfilling the projected goals, how to promote sustainable tourism with modest and  limited budgets, and measures on how to develop economic sustainability of sustainable tourism besides the ecological and socio-cultural aspect of living.

I am truly grateful to be part of this experience and I am looking forward to our professional endeavors, keeping my expectations high because I believe that sustainability by itself asks for high efforts and motivation of all of us who CARE.

Bojana Bozhinovska (EMTM)

my expectations from this course

Tuesday, September 9th, 2014

Hi every one, my name is Shima Ahmadi and I am coming from a beautiful country, Iran.

I started mountain climbing several years ago and I found nature and traveling as a great part of my life so I decided to be practical in this field, I passed several courses regarding to be able helping people who likes nature and at the same time respecting that. I am a  mountaineering coach now. But I found my self more eager in this field so I started to work as travel agent.

I want to make it my life and my pleasure. Today I am here because of several reasons, boosting tourism industry in my country is my milestone (cause media influenced people’s mind), then making a good connection between European and Iranian. Using and learning from each moment of this program is a great opportunity for me.

From another perspective I am really interested in Eco-tour and seeing people ruining the nature in order to have fun killing me! we also need to work hard in this field too. So what I expect from this course is learning how to take a stand regarding a sustainable approach.

I am so new in academic field but I will do my best to grab what I want.

Etivity 1 My expectations

Monday, September 8th, 2014

Coming into this masters after studying 3 years in Marketing Management (with a focus on Innovation&Entrepreneurship), I had little knowledge about tourism, let alone sustainable tourism development, so my hope was to gather plenty information and knowledge that will help me one day build my own business in the tourism field. To my surprise, the first class in this course triggered in my mind the thought “Is it possible to have a business that could be based on sustainability?” and more importantly “Could I do it in my home country?”.

Romania is probably one of the least touristic countries I know of, due to poor infrastructure, corruption, lack in interest and responsibility, bad image among foreigners and maybe an old-fashioned mentality. Although this is the case, Romania is also filled with thousand of resources that just wait to be discovered and used; from mountains to the seaside there are hidden treasures everywhere in all the corners of the country.

So, my expectations coming into the course would start with knowing exactly what sustainable tourism development actually is and what are its purposes and if I can apply this thinking in Romania. I am expecting that all the cases and practical information combined with the theoretical base, will help me in the future know how to create a touristic environment in a sustainable way, without affecting it negatively or not exploiting it to the maximum. Also, I am excited to get different perspectives from all the classmates and maybe find a way to understand STD better and how to be successful in applying it in real life cases.

My main hopes after finishing the education are to be able to open my own business in the field (and to do it in a way that is not just profitable, but also environmental friendly) and to make a change (even a small one) in how foreigners perceive my country and maybe show that is not all bad and we actually have plenty of things to do and see.

I am looking forward to what the course will teach me, and how I will be able to use all the information&knowledge in the next years.

Expectations to the Sustainable Tourism Development course (Caroline)

Monday, September 8th, 2014

In this course I expect to learn how tourism can be sustainable and to what extent tourism aspects can be improved in the future in terms of sustainability.

To my mind, it is highly important to deal with the issues education and responsibility if you talk about sustainable tourism. I think there are a few tourists who behave irresponsibly in their vacation by throwing garbage on the ground instead of in containers or showing no respect for the environment and citizens. Otherwise, some tourists travel to foreign destinations which ones have a completely different culture and language than the own country without obtaining sufficient information about these destinations in advance, so that they don’t know how to act in these new environments.

Furthermore, it would be interesting to get a deeper insight in some stages of the tourism value chain (such as attraction, transportation, accommodation or events) and examine these stages critically with regard to sustainability. I guess it could be interesting to discover if tourists incorporate sustainability in their choice of destinations to which they wish to travel or to what extent certain mode of transport (such as planes, cruiser and cars) become more environment-friendly.

First Etivity

Monday, September 8th, 2014

Hello everyone! I am Violet from Argentina, I was born and raised in the famous Patagonia region. I lived for a year in South Africa, with native African and Indian families. After the come-back, I decided to move 1200 km away from my hometown and study in Rosario…
So, what about tourism? 🙂
The conexion to this field is mainly derived from my Thesis for the MA in Political Science and Public Administration, which dealt with public policies on tourism in Rosario. I also consider 3,5 years of work experience in a NGO of businessmen (which strives for local development, addressing tourism issues as a non-profit institution) as a milestone for choosing the EMTM programme. Therefore, my expectations regarding the Sustainable Tourism Development course are to be able to grasp and apprehend other dimensions of tourism I haven’t had the chance to come across in the practice, or investigate in previous researches.
Because of my academic formation, I can’t help but think about tourism from the public sector. Any State, at even the lowest level of government, is a key actor and facilitator (or sometimes, not) of developments that comprise such a variety of concerned parties and actions. And as such it is the stakeholder that, from my perspective, can AND MUST always take a stand regarding a sustainable approach.
Considering my background and the Southern-hemisphere countries where I have lived, what motivates me the most is the possibility of gathering some “tools” in this course that will enable me to work for the development of long-term strategies in such regions, where there is still a lot of planning to do regarding tourism… I wish to work in interdisciplinary teams of “sustainable city developers” in the near future!
All the best for this upcoming classes to us all! XXXOOO

Activity 1: Expectations for the course

Monday, September 8th, 2014

I associate sustainable tourism development with “managing changes”. As an industry and as  cultural phenomena, tourism have undoubtedly brought about changes to the environment at large, from natural environment to social environment. We witness these changes every day. While I tend to think that changes per se are inevitable, it is also the duty for the “users” to manage such changes to bring good, or at least prevent harm to society.


Apart from the impact of tourism on natural environment, I take much interest in the impact on culture. As travelling seems getting ever easier, we can anticipate more influx of visitors into tourism destinations, along with “challenges to local cultures”. Will the “true colours” of destinations be altered? How do we make sense of the dynamics between visitors and hosts? How should we respond to these challenges?  These lead us to contemplate how we conserve our heritage (not just buildings and artifacts, but also what we have inherited from our ancestors) in a broader sense.


I look forward to developing understanding of theoretical framework underpinning sustainability, sustainable development and sustainable tourism. On top of the teaching, I also look forward to learning from the rich and diverse experience of my classmates.


Sustainability and policy making – ending or beginning?

Monday, September 8th, 2014

I had once the opportunity to travel to the Maltese islands. Malta receives a lot of fundings from the European Union which it mainly uses to renovate and re-construct the important parts of its capital Valletta.

However, there is more to visit, such as the neighbouring island Gozo, the Maltese “Ireland”, named so, because of its beautiful green rolling hills.

But it is very poor. Once you leave the ferry, inhabitants will try to convince you to join them on a taxi tour etc. around the island.

I could easily list numerous sites that are worth the tourism, but almost nothing is done about it.

How can it be that the main island receives such a lot of money, but there are no visible effects on Gozo which belongs to the same government and the same country? Why is it not possible to create tourism sites, that celebrate these in a responsible way and from which the inhabitants can profit? They want the tourism; otherwise they would not stand there and wait for the ferry to arrive. They simply do not get the opportunities to gain from it.

Why this corresponds to my expectations towards this course? Because back then I decided I wanted to study tourism in terms of regional and sustainable development. So this course and its contents excite me a lot. And I would love to hear more about sustainable tourism development and its clash with policies. It seems that it often starts, but also ends with policy making of states and nations.

Etivity 1: Expectations upon Sustainable Tourism Developement.

Monday, September 8th, 2014

This will probably be the hardest topic to adress and the one with the most contradictions. Why do I say this? We should not fantasize with sustainable perspectives as we (human beings) are being unsustainable just for the simple fact of living. We should make no mistake and realize that the world of tourism is one of the biggest industries in the world. As every industry and entreprise, the very first aim is to make a profit and ensure our well living. I believe the main mistake is trying to put “sustainability” as a goal or objective instead of chaging people’s menthality towards the topic. Merging ecology and economy into one system is for me the main goal we should aim at. To still have profit using as less resources as possible, in order to ensure a quality tourism in future times.

I think this is the main topic of discussion, that can sometimes lead into the paradox of sustainability. Having done an “Intensive Program” about sustainability in Hotels and tourism entreprises I can say the conclusion we all reached was quite ambiguous.

I expect from this lecture to totally understand the topic sustainability and correctly adress it to the tourism industry. I hope lecturers and students we will have interesting and usefull discussions always having their feet in the ground and realizing that tourism is still ruled by number of visitors and their expenditure in the destination.


Gonzalo Adell.

Expectations from the course

Monday, September 8th, 2014

Living in mountain region with the biggest in Europe area of virgin forests, my parents taught me to live in harmony with nature.  During my childhood, I was spending every summer in ecological camp and I was going hiking every week. It was my background to study tourism. After the second year of study, I worked in Turkey, Antalya. It is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world. I met there hundreds of tourists every day. I could learn all advantages and disadvantages of mass tourism. On one hand, mass tourism brings a lot of money to country/ region/ city/ people but destroys nature. On the other hand, sustainable tourism save ecological system but brings much less money for economics. I decided to study by EMTM program because I want to make my region also a very popular tourist destination, developing a huge range of tourism’s kinds but, in the same time, decreasing impact on ecology and social environment.

My main expectations:

– How to influence entrepreneurs, local authorities and government to develop sustainably?

– What types of organizations and grant programmes are in the field of sustainable development?

– How to combine mass and sustainable development?


Ernest Samsonchyk

Expectations about Sustainable Development of Tourism Course

Monday, September 8th, 2014

During the last decade, people are beginning to be more aware of the increase of contamination, and there are numerous actions taken in order to protect the environment. Tourism is said to be also a cause of degrading the environment. Many areas before considered natural places are now being degraded because of the popular mass tourism. With the increasing economy, people are spending much more money in order to visit exotic places such as virgin beaches or forests; and where there is demand there is offer, especially in the business sector of hoteliers and restaurants, they are opened right in those places to welcome the tourists and facilitate their stay. An example would be Maldives, where because of the global warming there is danger of being covered by water in the next 30 years approximately. This place is a very famous destination for tourists so implementing a good sustainability development would help delay the course of being underwater and preserve the island for future visits.

To sum up, with this course I would like to learn about how we could develop touristic destination in a sustainable way so that we could conserve them for now and the future.

My expectations to the Sustainable Tourism Development course.

Monday, September 8th, 2014

Tourism industry has been considered to be one of the most destructive industries to the ecosystem and environment in many countries, at the same time, tourism industry is also a very productive source for the country’s economy, even in some countries, tourism represents up to a 12 per cent of GDP. In Spain, since the flourished of the tourism in the sixtieth, to adapt the new phenomenon called “mass-tourism” of sun and beaches, there were a lots of constructions alongside of the coastline, such as Hotels, apartments, Resorts, etc., when government realized the negative effect was endangering the environment of the seashore and the fish industry they established a law, but it was in early ninetieth when this happened, so many of the damages produced are now irrecoverable

I had a course called “touristic resources” in my bachelor degree; it is about how to recognize a touristic destination, products and how to develop them in a sustainable way. It was an only 4.5 ETCS course, so I was taught with essential knowledge about the field, therefore, I hope with this course, I would be able to have a deeper insight and learn more techniques to develop touristic resources sustainably.

Etivity 1: Expectations on Sustainable Tourism Development

Sunday, September 7th, 2014

Coming from a mass tourism perspective where sustainability is mainly abused for marketing or green washing purposes I desire to be enlightened on the true meaning of the term. I wonder how cultural authenticity can be protected from the greed for profit and political image and how accessibility and safety can be aligned with wild natural phenomena. How can tourism be altered to increase the benefit for local nature and people while hardly compromising on revenue inflows? What incentives are there or should there be for tourism entrepreneurs and governments to support sustainability? I wish the content of this course develops my competence to formulate answers to at least some of these subjects on both a macro and micro level.

I aspire after a tool kit to analyse tourism destinations and projects on their level of sustainability and the pointing to future opportunities to establish it in new and mass tourism destinations. How is sustainability created and measured? Passionate for the Balearic and Canary Islands I would like to discover ways to build sustainable tourism projects and restructure and recover tourism destinations at the edge of destruction. Almost half of the world heritage sites are in Europe, a majority in Germany, France and Italy. Therefore I question whether sustainability is a luxury that only rich countries can afford. What potential do international networks between nations of frequent traveller`s origin and host nations have to balance the need for sustainable tourism?

I would like to convince travellers to trade in comfort and convenience for the greater good of preservation. So the beauty of original wild nature and cultural heritage can be explored by us and all generations to come. Our future holiday photos mustn’t show coasts of concrete covered in common dull souvenir shops and the left overs of nature protected in cages – from us.

Christina Bispink 

Etivity 01

Sunday, September 7th, 2014

Expectations to the course:                                                                                                                                                                                                                         I have a hope that after this course I will feel suited to undertake and participate in making and developing tourism in a sustainable way. That being in different set-up across the globe, from the burning Middle East, to poor African tribes or rather rich Danish coastal destinations.

There are different roles that can be played in the pursuing of sustainability; government, NGOs, business manager – but who carries the ultimate responsibility and how to influence those?

I would love to feel suited to promote tourism as a positive way to create growth in a community, learn some basic frameworks or perspectives that are good to know and use, instead of looking solely on statistics and tourism trends, even though the course praise innovation and new thoughts, it would be nice with a base to start from.

Some final thoughts:

Is it possible to create sustainable mass tourism?

A cliché metaphor is: learn people to fish instead of just giving them a fish to eat – meaning here how not to be a dictator knowing best but actually make inhabitants/involved people understand the cruciality and carry on the work?